DÄ internationalArchive6/2016Renal Insufficiency and Medication in Nursing Home Residents

Original article

Renal Insufficiency and Medication in Nursing Home Residents

A cross-sectional study (IMREN)

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016; 113: 92-8. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0092

Hoffmann, F; Boeschen, D; Dörks, M; Herget-Rosenthal, S; Petersen, J; Schmiemann, G

Background: Nursing home residents often suffer from a multiplicity of medical conditions and take many different drugs. Many drugs are eliminated via the kidneys and thus require dose adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency. This is the first study to address the prevalence of renal insufficiency among nursing home residents in Germany, and the extent to which such persons take drugs that are contraindicated or incorrectly dosed because of renal insufficiency.

Method: We carried out a cross-sectional study in nursing homes in the German regions of Bremen and Lower Saxony. Data were collected by nursing staff and given to us anonymously. Whenever the nursing home data did not include a current creatinine value, the patient’s general practitioner was asked to supply this value. The estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) was calculated with the Cockcroft-Gault formula.

Results: 852 residents of 21 nursing homes were included in the study; eCCr values were obtainable for 685 (80.4%) of them (average age, 83.3 years; 75.2% female). 48.2% of these patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.8–54.5) had moderate renal insufficiency (eCCr 59–30 mL/min), and 15.5% (95% CI 12.4–18.6) had severe renal insufficiency (eCCr <30 mL/min). 19.7% were regularly taking at least one medication that was contraindicated or incorrectly dosed in the light of renal insufficiency. Predictors for such inappropriate drug use were advanced age, female sex, arterial hypertension, and polypharmacy. The drugs that were most often inappropriately used were metformin, ramipril, and potassium chloride.

Conclusion: Nursing home residents often suffer from renal insufficiency and should therefore have their creatinine levels measured regularly. A knowledge of the creatinine level is a prerequisite for the proper adjustment of drug doses (if necessary). A practical and compact summary of dose-adjustment recommendations for patients with renal insufficiency would be desirable but is not yet available.

LNSLNS

About 800 000 people in Germany live in nursing homes (1). This is a population characterized by a high prevalence of chronic diseases and by physical and cognitive impairment (26). According to the international literature, the percentage of nursing home residents with renal insufficiency, defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 mL/min, is very high, ranging between 22% and 78% (712). However, at present no reliable figures are available for Germany. In addition, nursing home residents often receive multiple drugs (6, 13). Since about 50% of all drugs or their metabolites are renally eliminated, this particular patient group is at considerably increased risk of inappropriate drug therapy (14). The most frequent causes of inappropriate drug therapy in older persons and nursing home residents relate to prescription (dosage too high, dose intervals too short), compliance, and/or lack of treatment monitoring (1517). The consequences can in some cases include severe adverse drug events (AE) leading to hospital admission or even death. However, most of these AE in nursing home residents are classified as potentially avoidable or reducible (16, 17). In patients with renal insufficiency, lack of dose adjustment or the use of drugs that are contraindicated for the patient’s level of renal function are of particular significance. The few international studies that have been carried out in the nursing home setting show that 12% to 29% of residents receive at least one drug at an inappropriate dosage (1820). The range of drugs included in the various studies varies widely. How often nursing home residents in Germany receive drugs that are not adjusted for their renal function, or are contraindicated, is unknown.

The aims of this study were therefore to investigate what percentage of nursing home residents have renal insufficiency and how often drugs are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s renal function.

Methods

Data and study design

The “Inappropriate Medication in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in Nursing Homes” (IMREN) project is a multicenter cross-sectional study carried out between October 2014 and April 2015 in nursing homes in Bremen and the parts of Lower Saxony surrounding Bremen. A convenience sample was taken of nursing homes that were heterogeneous in terms of supporting organization, size, and location. Within this sample, data were recorded for all residents of the participating care units of the homes. There were no exclusion criteria.

Data collection was anonymized; data were recorded exclusively by the nursing staff in the nursing homes, using a piloted data collection form to which the patient’s current medication regimen was attached. Active participation of the residents was not required for this study, which relied exclusively on existing data. Data collected included sociodemographic information such as age and sex, height and weight, diseases present, and care level.

Up-to-date plasma creatinine concentrations were taken from care notes or hospital discharge letters; if no data were present, the care personnel requested them from the patient’s general practitioners. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated as estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) using the Cockcroft–Gault equation, because this is used in published studies (1820) and as the reference in the summary of product characteristics (SPC). The Cockcroft–Gault equation includes the following variables: age, sex, body weight, and creatinine concentration (eFigure) (21).

Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance
Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance
eFigure
Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance

All data collection forms were computerized by two people independently of each other. The electronic data collection regarding medication regimens was done exclusively by pharmacists. For each drug prescribed, the summary of product characteristics was used as a basis to determine whether the drug was contraindicated or required dosage adjustment in patients with impaired renal function (eTable). Each prescription was individually assessed for whether the dosage was appropriate or the drug contraindicated for the resident’s current level of renal function. If the SPC merely mentioned dose adjustment without giving further details, we made the conservative assumption that the drugs had been correctly adjusted. All dosages were regarded as maintenance dosages. If starting dosages adjusted to the renal function had been required, this could not be taken into account because of the lack of information about treatment duration. All analyses are confined exclusively to scheduled medication. Drugs taken “as needed” and extemporaneous products were not included in the analysis.

Sample size calculation

Assuming a prevalence of renal insufficiency of 45% and an intracluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 (22), the intention was to enroll a total of 856 residents in 19 homes (n = 45 per home), in order to calculate a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) with a precision of ± 4% (41% to 49%).

Statistical analysis

All residents for whom at least one eCCr value could be computed were included. The prevalence of moderate (eCCr 59 to 30 mL/min, corresponding to stage 3 in ICD-10) and severe renal insufficiency (eCCr <30 mL/min, corresponding to stages 4 and 5) was calculated on the basis of the most recent creatinine values available. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the baseline data. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables were associated with inappropriately dosed or contraindicated drugs for the patient’s current renal function. Predictors included in the model were age, sex, care level, polypharmacy (≥5 scheduled medications), and the most frequent co-morbidities. All analyses were cluster-adjusted; for regression analysis, mixed models with random effects were used. SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, USA) was used for all analyses.

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Bremen.

Results

Baseline data of the study population

A total of 852 residents (10 to 69 per home) of 21 homes were enrolled (11 in Bremen, 10 in the parts of Lower Saxony surrounding Bremen). At least one eCCr value could be calculated for 685 of these 852 residents (80.4%; 30% to 100% per home). The two groups (those with and those without at least one eCCr value) did not differ significantly in terms of baseline characteristics (Table 1). The analysis reported here is confined to residents with eCCr values. They had an average age of 83.3 years, three quarters of them were female, and they had been in the nursing home for an average of 3.2 years. More than a quarter of the residents had been assessed at care level III, and more than half had dementia.

Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available
Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available
Table 1
Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available

Renal insufficiency

A total of 63.6% (95% CI: [55.8; 71.5]) had renal insufficiency (eCCr <60 mL/min), 48.2% of which with an eCCr of 59–30 and 15.5% with an eCCr of <30 mL/min (Table 2). A constant decline in renal function with age was shown. Thus, severe renal insufficiency (eCCr <30 mL/min) was found in 1.4% of <70-year-olds, but in 29.8% of residents aged at least 90 years. Female nursing home residents had poorer renal function than male residents, although the average age of female residents was also higher (85.0 vs. 78.3 years). The only significant difference between the sexes was in the 70 to 79 year-old age group (eCCr <60 mL/min was 12.5% [4.9; 20.1] in men and 44.0% [26.8; 61.2]) in women; however, case numbers were low.

Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
Table 2
Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)

The most recent creatinine value was a mean of 185 days old (interquartile range [IQR] 67 to 373). In a third of cases (31.6%) it was taken from the hospital discharge letter; in the remaining cases it was requested from the patient’s general practitioner or was recorded in the care notes. The values from both sources were of similar recency (median 185 and 188 days old, respectively). If only the 507 residents (74.1%) whose most recent creatinine values were from the previous 365 days are included, the results are the same as when all residents with recorded values are included (48.9% with an eCCr of 59 to 30 mL/min and 15.8% with an eCCr <30 mL/ min).

Medication adjustment

The 685 residents were receiving a total of 4316 drugs as scheduled medication, of which 2184 (50.6%) were potentially contraindicated or required dosage adjustment in patients with impaired renal function. The most frequently used of these were ramipril, simvastatin, and torasemide (Table 3). However, in only a small number of cases (n = 169; 7.7%) were these actually being incorrectly used in relation to the given patient’s renal function, because the drug was inappropriately dosed (n = 54) or was contraindicated (n = 115) for the patient’s eCCr value. This was most often the case for metformin, ramipril, and potassium chloride (Table 3).

Drug prescribing
Drug prescribing
Table 3
Drug prescribing

In total, 135 residents (19.7%) [15.5; 23.9] were receiving at least one drug that was inappropriately dosed or was contraindicated for their renal level of function. This was associated with higher age, female sex, arterial hypertension, and polypharmacy. Care level had no effect (Table 4).

Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function
Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function
Table 4
Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function

Discussion

Results in the context of the existing literature

This cross-sectional study showed that 63.6% of residents had renal insufficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published study of renal function in nursing home residents in Germany. Most international studies are from North America and show a very wide range of variation, with values between 22% and 78% (712), although some of this variation is due to known differences between the equations used to estimate creatinine clearance (23, 24). The largest study published so far enrolled 9931 residents in 87 homes in Ontario, Canada, and found an eGFR or eCCr <60 mL/min in 35.7% (“modification of diet in renal disease” [MDRD equation]) and 77.5% respectively (Cockcroft–Gault equation, which we used in our study) (11). Similar differences between the estimating equations can also be identified in our study (<60 and <30 mL/min in 63.6% and 15.5% respectively according to Cockcroft–Gault versus 41.5% and 5.5% according to MDRD). This makes clear what a large effect the choice of estimating equation has on the requirement for dose adjustment (25). Where reported, however, all studies, including our own—irrespective of which equation was used—showed renal function reducing with age, and women with lower values than men (8, 1012).

How often nursing home residents receive drugs at inappropriate dosages or that are contraindicated for their renal function, has so far as we know only been investigated in three US studies, none of which included as large a number of different drugs as the present one (1820). In one study of 1304 nursing home residents, in 11.9% of residents at least one of 21 drugs had not been dose-adjusted (18). In another study, 197 out of 721 residents (27.3%) received at least one of 18 drugs included in the study at an inappropriate dosage (20). The third study included all drugs that were prescribed (55 in total), but only in 90 residents. In that study, 56 residents (62%) received drugs that required dose adjustment, and in 26 (29%) at least one drug was not dose-adjusted (19). Our finding of around 20% appears comparatively low when one remembers that the larger part of our patient group (90.1%) had drugs prescribed that required adjustment or were contraindicated in patients with renal insufficiency. Regarding the frequently used drugs, there were some accordances with previous studies (e.g., allopurinol, hydrochlorothiazide, spironolactone, or gabapentin) (18, 20); other drugs, such as ranitidine, barely appeared in our study (prescribed only three times as scheduled medication). Age and polypharmacy or co-morbidities were associated with non-adjusted medication in both the larger studies (18, 20) and in our own. In the study by Hanlon et al. (18), the odds ratio for female sex was also numerically increased.

Strengths and limitations of the present study

The present study is based on a dataset of almost 700 nursing home residents prescribed about 4300 drugs as scheduled medication. Nevertheless, it is still a convenience sample of nursing homes willing to take part in a study of this kind. This means that selection bias cannot be ruled out. The same is true of the reported creatinine values, as some general practitioners, who measure serum creatinine only sporadically, may not have given information on this point. For 19.6% of residents, eCCr could not be calculated because no blood samples were taken for the purpose of the study. To do this would have required consent from the residents, which would have led to another selection bias. On the other hand, we were able to include all of the residents in the participating care units—an important point for the validity of the study. In one American study that also relied on existing data, 24% or 32% of creatinine values (depending on the calculation method used) were missing (10). The creatinine values available to us were a median of 185 days old. This does not, however, allow us to conclude with certainty that these values are measured too infrequently. A third of the values were taken from hospital discharge letters: in these cases, more recent values may exist that are unknown to the nursing homes. However, restricting the analysis to residents with values from the preceding year did not alter the prevalence of renal insufficiency.

Various equations exist for calculating the GFR, requiring different variables (e.g., cystatin C) and producing different results (8, 21, 2326). We decided to use the Cockcroft–Gault equation, because this is commonly in routine use in clinical practice (27, 28) and in studies similar to ours (7, 11, 1820, 23). In addition, it overestimates GFR in older persons to a much lesser extent than do the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations—an important consideration in the question of dose adjustment (28). However, restrictions in drug use in persons with impaired renal function are sometimes linked to certain other laboratory values which were not available to us and therefore could not be taken into account in this study.

To date, there is no generally accepted, uniform compilation of drugs that are contraindicated or require dose adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency (1820, 25, 29). For this reason, we decided to rely on the SPC, since this is what is used by the personnel prescribing and supplying drugs, and is approved by regulatory authorities and regularly revised. It does, however, sometimes contain recommendations that do not reflect current evidence or routine practice; an example would be the contraindication for metformin in patients with an eGFR <60 mL/min (2931), which after the study was concluded was lowered to <45 mL/min. Taking renal artery stenosis into consideration, and with monitoring of creatinine and potassium concentrations, even ACE inhibitors and sartans are recommended for nephroprotection (32, 33). Similarly, calcium channel blockers are used in patients with renal insufficiency to reduce blood pressure, and thiazides and related diuretics are used together with loop diuretics (33). Ultimately, it is up to the treating physician to weigh up risks against benefits, and so it can occasionally happen that even a drug that is contraindicated in patients with kidney disease is beneficial. An example is oral substitution with iron(II) sulfate, which, despite being contraindicated in patients with severe kidney disease, is, with regular monitoring, a mainstay of treatment for renal anemia (34). Other limitations of the study are discussed in the eBox.

Other limitations of the study
Other limitations of the study
eBox
Other limitations of the study

Conclusions

Renal insufficiency is common in residents of nursing homes. In this patient group, therefore, creatinine values should be determined at least once a year and, ideally, recorded in the care notes so as to be available to all personnel involved in the patient’s care. This would allow renal function to be taken into account even by, for example, emergency or out-of-hours physicians when prescribing. Clearly, this is not regular practice at present.

Overall, with about half of the drugs used for scheduled medication in nursing home residents, caution is needed in patients with impaired renal function. In most of the prescriptions in the present study, this had in fact been taken into account. However, in some cases it was difficult to ascertain whether and which dose adjustments were needed (e.g., for insulins, opioids, or other analgesics). Sometimes the SPC given by different manufacturers is even contradictory. This problem of divergent recommendations has also been described in the literature (25, 29). The call for a thorough review and standardization of prescribing information regarding the use of drugs in patients with renal insufficiency—as formulated in the 2008/2009 action plan for improving drug safety in Germany (35)—therefore needs repeating, with emphasis. Even in the www.dosing.de database set up by Heidelberg University Hospital, dosage recommendations are missing for some active ingredients.

Thus, there exists no unified, practical reference source for everyday clinical use where dose adjustments to be made in patients with renal insufficiency can be looked up. Given the increasing proportion of older people with multiple morbidities, this is a major problem for drug safety. A variety of approaches to a possible solution exist, which could include the following:

  • Rapid harmonization of summary of product characteristics
  • Integration with electronic prescribing aids or apps
  • Optimization of www.dosing.de
  • Producing a guideline specifically for this purpose, as was done in the Netherlands (36).

Conflict of interest statement

This study was supported financially by KfH-Stiftung Präventivmedizin. KfH-Stiftung Präventivmedizin was not involved in the data analysis and had no influence on the preparation of the manuscript or the decision to submit. The authors declare that no other conflicts of interest exist.


Acknowledgment
The authors are grateful to Mandy Köhrmann and Katharina Allers for inputting the survey form data and to Birgitt Wiese for statistical support. They thank all the participating homes for their collaboration, and Christian Scholz for technical support.


Translated from the original German by Kersti Wagstaff, MA.


Manuscript received on 21 June 2015, revised version accepted on
30 September 2015.

Corresponding author:
Prof. Dr. Falk Hoffmann, MPH
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Fakultät für Medizin und Gesundheitswissenschaft
Department für Versorgungsforschung
26111 Oldenburg, Germany
falk.hoffmann@uni-oldenburg.de

@Supplementary material
For eReferences please refer to:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/ref0416

eBox, eFigure, eTable:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/16m0092

1.
Pflegestatistik 2011. Pflege im Rahmen der Pflegeversicherung. Deutschlandergebnisse www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Gesundheit/PflegePflegeDeutschlandergebnisse5224001119004.pdf ] (Last accessed on 28 September 2015).
2.
Reuther S, van Nie N, Meijers J, Halfens R, Bartholomeyczik S: [Malnutrition and dementia in the elderly in German nursing homes. Results of a prevalence survey from the years 2008 and 2009]. Z Gerontol Geriatr 2013; 46: 260–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
3.
Meyer G, Köpke S, Haastert B, Mühlhauser I: Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. J Clin Nurs 2009; 18: 981–90 CrossRef MEDLINE
4.
Hoffmann F, Kaduszkiewicz H, Glaeske G, van den Bussche H, Koller D: Prevalence of dementia in nursing home and community-dwelling older adults in Germany. Aging Clin Exp Res 2014; 26: 555–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
5.
Richter T, Mann E, Meyer G, Haastert B, Köpke S: Prevalence of psychotropic medication use among German and Austrian nursing home residents: a comparison of 3 cohorts. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 187.e7–187.e13 CrossRef MEDLINE
6.
Gordon AL, Franklin M, Bradshaw L, Logan P, Elliott R, Gladman JRF: Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.
Age Ageing 2014; 43: 97–103 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
7.
Aguilar EA, Ashraf H, Frontini M, Ruiz M, Reske TM, Cefalu C: An analysis of chronic kidney disease risk factors in a Louisiana nursing home population: a cross-sectional study. J La State Med Soc 2013; 165: 260–3, 265–7 MEDLINE
8.
Chan TC, Yap DYH, Shea YF, Luk KH, Chan HW, Chu LW: Prevalence and associated comorbidities of moderate to severe chronic renal impairment in Chinese nursing home older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 630–3 CrossRefMEDLINE
9.
Joseph J, Koka M, Aronow WS: Prevalence of moderate and severe renal insufficiency in older persons with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, ischemic stroke, or congestive heart failure in an academic nursing home. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2008; 9: 257–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
10.
Schnelle J, Osterweil D, Globe D, Sciarra A, Audhya P, Barlev A: Chronic kidney disease, anemia, and the association between chronic kidney disease-related anemia and activities of daily living in older nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2009; 10: 120–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
11.
Garg AX, Papaioannou A, Ferko N, Campbell G, Clarke JA, Ray JG: Estimating the prevalence of renal insufficiency in seniors requiring long-term care. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 649–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
12.
Robinson B, Artz AS, Culleton B, Critchlow C, Sciarra A, Audhya P: Prevalence of anemia in the nursing home: contribution of chronic kidney disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1566–70 CrossRef MEDLINE
13.
Beloosesky Y, Nenaydenko O, Gross Nevo RF, Adunsky A, Weiss A: Rates, variability, and associated factors of polypharmacy in nursing home patients. Clin Interv Aging 2013; 8: 1585–90 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
14.
Hartmann B, Czock D, Keller F: Drug therapy in patients with chronic renal failure. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 647–55; quiz 655–6 VOLLTEXT
15.
Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, et al.: Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events among older persons in the ambulatory setting. JAMA 2003; 289: 1107–16 CrossRef MEDLINE
16.
Jaehde U, Thürmann PA: [Medication safety in nursing homes]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106: 712–6 CrossRefMEDLINE
17.
Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Avorn J, et al.: Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in nursing homes. Am J Med 2000; 109: 87–94 CrossRef
18.
Hanlon JT, Wang X, Handler SM, et al.: Potentially inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications for older veterans affairs nursing home patients. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2011; 12: 377–83 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
19.
Rahimi AR, Kennedy K, Thomason M, Crumley J, Bugg A, Peacock E: Improper renal dosing in long-term care facilities. South Med J 2008; 101: 802–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.
Papaioannou A, Clarke JA, Campbell G, Bédard M: Assessment of adherence to renal dosing guidelines in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 1470–3 CrossRef
21.
Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al.: Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 471–81 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.
Adams G, Gulliford MC, Ukoumunne OC, Eldridge S, Chinn S, Campbell MJ: Patterns of intra-cluster correlation from primary care research to inform study design and analysis.
J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 785–94 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.
Modig S, Lannering C, Östgren C, Mölstad S, Midlöv P: The assessment of renal function in relation to the use of drugs in elderly in nursing homes; a cohort study. BMC Geriatr 2011; 11: 1 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
24.
Dharmarajan TS, Yoo J, Russell RO, Norkus EP: Chronic kidney disease staging in nursing home and community older adults: does the choice of cockcroft-gault, modification of diet in renal disease study, or the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration initiative equations matter? J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 151–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.
Karsch-Völk M, Schmid E, Wagenpfeil S, Linde K, Heemann U, Schneider A: Kidney function and clinical recommendations of drug dose adjustment in geriatric patients. BMC Geriatr 2013; 13: 92 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
26.
Drenth-van Maanen AC, Jansen PA, Proost JH, Egberts TC, van Zuilen AD, van der Stap D, van Marum RJ: Renal function assessment in older adults. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013; 76: 616–23 CrossRef
27.
Nygaard HA, Naik M, Ruths S, Krüger K: Clinically important renal impairment in various groups of old persons. Scand J Prim Health Care 2004; 22: 152–6 CrossRef
28.
Dowling TC, Wang ES, Ferrucci L, Sorkin JD: Glomerular filtration rate equations overestimate creatinine clearance in older individuals enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging: impact on renal drug dosing. Pharmacotherapy 2013; 33: 912–21 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
29.
Khanal A, Castelino RL, Peterson GM, Jose MD: Dose adjustment guidelines for medications in patients with renal impairment: how consistent are drug information sources? Intern Med J 2014; 44: 77–85 CrossRef MEDLINE
30.
Hanlon JT, Aspinall SL, Semla TP, et al.: Consensus guidelines for oral dosing of primarily renally cleared medications in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 335–40 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
31.
Inzucchi SE, Lipska KJ, Mayo H, Bailey CJ, McGuire DK: Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease:
A systematic review. JAMA 2014; 312: 2668–75 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
32.
Rutkowski B, Tylicki L: Nephroprotective action of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in chronic kidney disease patients: the landscape after ALTITUDE and VA NEPHRON-D trails.
J Ren Nutr 2015; 25: 194–200 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.
Verbeke F, Lindley E, van Bortel L, et al.: A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: an endorsement with some caveats for real-life application. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014; 29: 490–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Anaemia management in people with chronic kidney disease. London: National Clinical Guideline Centre www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng8 ]; 2015 (last accessed on 28 September 2015).
35.
Bundesministerium für Gesundheit: Aktionsplan 2008/2009 Zur Verbesserung Der Arznei­mittel­therapie­sicherheit (AMTS) in Deutschland [www.akdae.de/AMTS/Aktionsplan/Aktionsplan-AMTS-2008–2009.pdf]; 2007 (last accessed on 28 September 2015).
36.
Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie (KNMP): Verminderde Nierfunctie; Doseringsadviezen Voor Geneesmiddelen. Den Haag: Geneesmiddel Informatie Centrum www.knmp.nl/downloads/TabelbijVerminderdenierfunctie.Doseringsadviezenvoorgeneesmiddelen.pdf/view
(last accessed on 28 September 2015).
e1.
Todd A, Holmes HM: Recommendations to support deprescribing medications late in life. Int J Clin Pharm 2015; 37: 678–81 CrossRef MEDLINE
e2.
Schwartz JB: Primary prevention: do the very elderly require a different approach? Trends Cardiovasc Med 2015; 25: 228–39 CrossRef MEDLINE
e3.
Kutner JS, Blatchford PJ, Taylor DH, et al.: Safety and benefit of discontinuing statin therapy in the setting of advanced,
life-limiting illness. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175: 691–700 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e4.
Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al.: Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 471–81 CrossRef MEDLINE
Department of Health Services Research, Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg: Prof. Dr. P.H. Hoffmann, MPH, Dr. rer. nat. Dörks
Medical Clinic, Rotes-Kreuz-Krankenhaus, Bremen: Prof. Dr. med. Herget-Rosenthal
Department of Health, Nursing and Age Studies, SOCIUM – Research Center on Inequality and Social Policy, University of Bremen: Boeschen, Petersen, MPH
Department for Health Services Research, Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen and Health Sciences Bremen: Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Guido Schmiemann, MPH
Key messages
Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available
Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available
Table 1
Baseline characteristics of all nursing home residents, those for whom eCCr values were available, and those for whom eCCr values were not available
Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
Table 2
Prevalence of moderate and severe renal impairment (eCCr, Cockcroft–Gault equation) in nursing home residents by age and sex with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
Drug prescribing
Drug prescribing
Table 3
Drug prescribing
Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function
Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function
Table 4
Prevalences and variables associated with drugs administered to nursing home residents that are inappropriately dosed or are contraindicated for the patient’s actual renal function
Other limitations of the study
Other limitations of the study
eBox
Other limitations of the study
Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance
Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance
eFigure
Equations used to estimate creatinine clearance
1.Pflegestatistik 2011. Pflege im Rahmen der Pflegeversicherung. Deutschlandergebnisse www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Gesundheit/PflegePflegeDeutschlandergebnisse5224001119004.pdf ] (Last accessed on 28 September 2015).
2.Reuther S, van Nie N, Meijers J, Halfens R, Bartholomeyczik S: [Malnutrition and dementia in the elderly in German nursing homes. Results of a prevalence survey from the years 2008 and 2009]. Z Gerontol Geriatr 2013; 46: 260–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
3.Meyer G, Köpke S, Haastert B, Mühlhauser I: Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. J Clin Nurs 2009; 18: 981–90 CrossRef MEDLINE
4.Hoffmann F, Kaduszkiewicz H, Glaeske G, van den Bussche H, Koller D: Prevalence of dementia in nursing home and community-dwelling older adults in Germany. Aging Clin Exp Res 2014; 26: 555–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
5.Richter T, Mann E, Meyer G, Haastert B, Köpke S: Prevalence of psychotropic medication use among German and Austrian nursing home residents: a comparison of 3 cohorts. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 187.e7–187.e13 CrossRef MEDLINE
6.Gordon AL, Franklin M, Bradshaw L, Logan P, Elliott R, Gladman JRF: Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.
Age Ageing 2014; 43: 97–103 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
7.Aguilar EA, Ashraf H, Frontini M, Ruiz M, Reske TM, Cefalu C: An analysis of chronic kidney disease risk factors in a Louisiana nursing home population: a cross-sectional study. J La State Med Soc 2013; 165: 260–3, 265–7 MEDLINE
8.Chan TC, Yap DYH, Shea YF, Luk KH, Chan HW, Chu LW: Prevalence and associated comorbidities of moderate to severe chronic renal impairment in Chinese nursing home older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 630–3 CrossRefMEDLINE
9.Joseph J, Koka M, Aronow WS: Prevalence of moderate and severe renal insufficiency in older persons with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, ischemic stroke, or congestive heart failure in an academic nursing home. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2008; 9: 257–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
10.Schnelle J, Osterweil D, Globe D, Sciarra A, Audhya P, Barlev A: Chronic kidney disease, anemia, and the association between chronic kidney disease-related anemia and activities of daily living in older nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2009; 10: 120–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
11.Garg AX, Papaioannou A, Ferko N, Campbell G, Clarke JA, Ray JG: Estimating the prevalence of renal insufficiency in seniors requiring long-term care. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 649–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
12.Robinson B, Artz AS, Culleton B, Critchlow C, Sciarra A, Audhya P: Prevalence of anemia in the nursing home: contribution of chronic kidney disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1566–70 CrossRef MEDLINE
13.Beloosesky Y, Nenaydenko O, Gross Nevo RF, Adunsky A, Weiss A: Rates, variability, and associated factors of polypharmacy in nursing home patients. Clin Interv Aging 2013; 8: 1585–90 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
14.Hartmann B, Czock D, Keller F: Drug therapy in patients with chronic renal failure. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 647–55; quiz 655–6 VOLLTEXT
15. Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, et al.: Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events among older persons in the ambulatory setting. JAMA 2003; 289: 1107–16 CrossRef MEDLINE
16.Jaehde U, Thürmann PA: [Medication safety in nursing homes]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106: 712–6 CrossRefMEDLINE
17.Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Avorn J, et al.: Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in nursing homes. Am J Med 2000; 109: 87–94 CrossRef
18.Hanlon JT, Wang X, Handler SM, et al.: Potentially inappropriate prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications for older veterans affairs nursing home patients. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2011; 12: 377–83 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
19.Rahimi AR, Kennedy K, Thomason M, Crumley J, Bugg A, Peacock E: Improper renal dosing in long-term care facilities. South Med J 2008; 101: 802–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
20. Papaioannou A, Clarke JA, Campbell G, Bédard M: Assessment of adherence to renal dosing guidelines in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 1470–3 CrossRef
21.Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al.: Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 471–81 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.Adams G, Gulliford MC, Ukoumunne OC, Eldridge S, Chinn S, Campbell MJ: Patterns of intra-cluster correlation from primary care research to inform study design and analysis.
J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 785–94 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.Modig S, Lannering C, Östgren C, Mölstad S, Midlöv P: The assessment of renal function in relation to the use of drugs in elderly in nursing homes; a cohort study. BMC Geriatr 2011; 11: 1 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
24.Dharmarajan TS, Yoo J, Russell RO, Norkus EP: Chronic kidney disease staging in nursing home and community older adults: does the choice of cockcroft-gault, modification of diet in renal disease study, or the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration initiative equations matter? J Am Med Dir Assoc 2012; 13: 151–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Karsch-Völk M, Schmid E, Wagenpfeil S, Linde K, Heemann U, Schneider A: Kidney function and clinical recommendations of drug dose adjustment in geriatric patients. BMC Geriatr 2013; 13: 92 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
26.Drenth-van Maanen AC, Jansen PA, Proost JH, Egberts TC, van Zuilen AD, van der Stap D, van Marum RJ: Renal function assessment in older adults. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013; 76: 616–23 CrossRef
27.Nygaard HA, Naik M, Ruths S, Krüger K: Clinically important renal impairment in various groups of old persons. Scand J Prim Health Care 2004; 22: 152–6 CrossRef
28.Dowling TC, Wang ES, Ferrucci L, Sorkin JD: Glomerular filtration rate equations overestimate creatinine clearance in older individuals enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging: impact on renal drug dosing. Pharmacotherapy 2013; 33: 912–21 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
29.Khanal A, Castelino RL, Peterson GM, Jose MD: Dose adjustment guidelines for medications in patients with renal impairment: how consistent are drug information sources? Intern Med J 2014; 44: 77–85 CrossRef MEDLINE
30.Hanlon JT, Aspinall SL, Semla TP, et al.: Consensus guidelines for oral dosing of primarily renally cleared medications in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 335–40 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
31. Inzucchi SE, Lipska KJ, Mayo H, Bailey CJ, McGuire DK: Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease:
A systematic review. JAMA 2014; 312: 2668–75 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
32.Rutkowski B, Tylicki L: Nephroprotective action of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in chronic kidney disease patients: the landscape after ALTITUDE and VA NEPHRON-D trails.
J Ren Nutr 2015; 25: 194–200 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.Verbeke F, Lindley E, van Bortel L, et al.: A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: an endorsement with some caveats for real-life application. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014; 29: 490–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Anaemia management in people with chronic kidney disease. London: National Clinical Guideline Centre www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng8 ]; 2015 (last accessed on 28 September 2015).
35.Bundesministerium für Gesundheit: Aktionsplan 2008/2009 Zur Verbesserung Der Arznei­mittel­therapie­sicherheit (AMTS) in Deutschland [www.akdae.de/AMTS/Aktionsplan/Aktionsplan-AMTS-2008–2009.pdf]; 2007 (last accessed on 28 September 2015).
36.Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie (KNMP): Verminderde Nierfunctie; Doseringsadviezen Voor Geneesmiddelen. Den Haag: Geneesmiddel Informatie Centrum www.knmp.nl/downloads/TabelbijVerminderdenierfunctie.Doseringsadviezenvoorgeneesmiddelen.pdf/view
(last accessed on 28 September 2015).
e1.Todd A, Holmes HM: Recommendations to support deprescribing medications late in life. Int J Clin Pharm 2015; 37: 678–81 CrossRef MEDLINE
e2.Schwartz JB: Primary prevention: do the very elderly require a different approach? Trends Cardiovasc Med 2015; 25: 228–39 CrossRef MEDLINE
e3.Kutner JS, Blatchford PJ, Taylor DH, et al.: Safety and benefit of discontinuing statin therapy in the setting of advanced,
life-limiting illness. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175: 691–700 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e4.Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al.: Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 471–81 CrossRef MEDLINE