DÄ internationalArchive40/2017The Prevalence of Mental Illness in Homeless People in Germany

Original article

The Prevalence of Mental Illness in Homeless People in Germany

A systematic review and meta-analysis

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 665-72. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0665

Schreiter, S; Bermpohl, F; Krausz, M; Leucht, S; Rössler, W; Schouler-Ocak, M; Gutwinski, S

Background: The number of homeless people in Germany is increasing. Studies from multiple countries have shown that most homeless people suffer from mental illnesses that require treatment. Accurate figures on the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless in Germany can help improve care structures for this vulnerable group.

Methods: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of mental illness among homeless people in Germany.

Results: 11 pertinent studies published from 1995 to 2013 were identified. The overall study population consisted of 1220 homeless people. The pooled prevalence of axis I disorders was 77.4%, with a 95% confidence interval [95% CI] of [71.3; 82.9]. Substance-related disorders were the most common type of disorder, with a pooled prevalence of 60.9% [53.1; 68.5]. The most common among these was alcoholism, with a prevalence of 55.4% [49.2; 61.5]. There was marked heterogeneity across studies.

Conclusion: In Germany, the rate of mental illness requiring treatment is higher among the homeless than in the general population. The development and implementation of suitable care models for this marginalized and vulnerable group is essential if their elevated morbidity and mortality are to be reduced.

LNSLNS

The correlation between mental illness and homelessness has been the subject of both sociopolitical discussion and psychiatric research since the early 20th century (1). International studies conducted in the last 20 years have found lifetime prevalence rates for mental illness of between 60% and 93.3% among the homeless (26). For instance, one-month prevalence rates of between 8.1% and 58.5% have been found for alcohol dependency and between 2.8% and 42.3% for psychotic illnesses (7). These are associated with increased mortality due to, for example, suicide (8, 9) and substance abuse (10), an increased risk of serious somatic illness, particularly infectious diseases (11, 12), and increased rates of criminality (1315) and violence (16).

The extent to which figures from a meta-analysis on the prevalence of mental illness among homeless people in Western countries are comparable to the situation in Germany is limited. The meta-analysis found that the most common disorders were alcohol dependency at 8.1 to 58.5%, drug dependency at 4.5 to 54.2%, and psychotic illnesses at 2.8 to 42.3% (7). These figures must be interpreted in the context of factors relating to the cultures, societies, and medical care in the countries in which the research was conducted, as societal and social phenomena such as homelessness, poverty, and marginalization are dependent on countries‘ social orders.

In Germany there is no single, nationwide set of figures on homeless people. However, estimates by the German National Coalition of Service Providers for the Homeless (Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Wohnungslosenhilfe) indicate that homelessness in Germany has increased substantially: in 2014 there were approximately 335 000 people in the country without a home of their own, representing an estimated 18% increase compared to 2012 (17). The German National Coalition of Service Providers for the Homeless expects an additional 200 000 increase to around 536 000 homeless people in Germany by 2018 (17), partly due to migration and refugee movements.

Reliable figures on the distribution of mental disorders among homeless people may provide political players, public bodies, and psychiatric facilities a basis for improvement of the urgently needed support options for this vulnerable group. The risk of an undersupply of medical care for homeless people with mental illness is high: Europe-wide, fewer than one-third receive treatment (18).

This article aims to provide an overview of German studies that have already been conducted on the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless in Germany, by means of a systematic search of the literature and a meta-analysis.

Method

A systematic search of the literature for studies on the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless in Germany was performed via digital search platforms, using the search terms „homeless“ (or „homeless persons“) and „German“ (or „Germany“ or „Hamburg,“ „Berlin, “ „Munich“) (Figure 1). Next, the bibliographies of major publications were searched and individual authors were contacted. The search of the literature was performed by a physician, aided by a librarian. Studies were evaluated by a physician.

Flow diagram Literature search process
Figure 1
Flow diagram Literature search process

The following study inclusion criteria were used:

  • A definition of homelessness was stated; standardized diagnosis was conducted using ICD or DSM
  • Psychiatric diagnosis was performed via clinical examination based on validated diagnostic tools
  • With the exception of personality disorders, precise one-month prevalence rates were stated
  • Data was collected in Germany

There were various definitions of homelessness: from persons living directly on the streets only to other definitions that included those living in shelters for the homeless. Five studies used a time-based criterion, ranging from 30 days to 3 months.

Prevalence rates were calculated using a double arcsine transformation via MetaXL 5.3, which stabilizes variance (19). A random-effects model was used. The heterogeneity of the included studies was estimated using Cochran‘s Q and I2 and represented using 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was further explored using subgroup analyses based on categorical variables (time data collected [beginning before or after 2000], study size [less or more than 100], sex [male or female], participation rate [less or more than 80%]). This procedure was based on the MOOSE (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) criteria (20).

Results

We found 11 studies published between 1995 and 2013 (Table 1) (2, 11, 12, 2140, e1). Data was collected between 1989 and 2012. The total population of all the studies was 1220 homeless people, 131 (10.7%) of whom were women. Six studies investigated male-only samples (11, 12, 21, 26, 2830, 3235, 3840), 2 female-only (22, 31, 37), and 3 studies investigated samples of both sexes (with women accounting for between 13.7 and 20.7% of individuals) (2, 2325, 27, 36, e1). The mean ages of the investigated homeless people ranged from 29 to 48.1 years. Five studies were conducted in Munich (n = 804) (2, 11, 27, 29, 3139, e1), two in Tübingen (n = 108) (22, 30), and one each in Berlin (n = 72) (28, 40), Münster (n = 52) (26), Mannheim (n = 102) (2325), and Dortmund (n = 82) (12, 21). For the longitudinal study conducted in Munich, analysis took account of when data was first collected (27, 36). All data was collected in large cities (population >100 000), with the exception of Tübingen. Table 1 provides an overview of sampling strategies, definitions of homelessness, participation rates, and measuring tools used.

Details of included studies
Table 1
Details of included studies

The pooled prevalence of mental illness was 77.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [72.4; 82.3] (11 studies). The corresponding figure for Axis I disorders was 77.4% [71.3; 82.9] (8 studies) (2, 11, 22, 30, 31, 36, 39, 40). In decreasing order, pooled prevalence rates were as follows: the most common disorders were substance-related disorders at 60.9% [53,1; 68,5] in 6 studies (22, 25, 31, 33, 36, 39), with 55.4% [49.2; 61.5] in 8 studies (21, 22, 25, 31, 32, 36, 38, 40) for alcohol dependency and 13,9% [7.2; 22.2] in 6 studies (21, 22, 31, 33, 39, 40) for drug dependency. The second-most common disorders were anxiety disorders, with a pooled prevalence of 17.6% [12.9; 22.8] in 6 studies (22, 31, 33, 36, 39), followed by affective disorders at 15.2% [9.8; 21.5] in 8 studies (21, 22, 24, 30, 31, 33, 39, 40), with major depression at 11.6% [4.4; 21.3] in 5 studies (22, 31, 33, 36, 39), and psychotic illnesses at 8.3% [5.4; 11.8] in 10 studies (21, 22, 24, 26, 30, 31, 33, 36, 39, 40). The pooled prevalence of cognitive impairment was 11.7% [6.0; 18.9] in 7 studies (21, 22, 31, 33, 36, 39, 40); that of personality disorders was 29.1% [5.6; 59.5] in 3 studies (2, 21, 24) (summarized in eTable 2 and Figures 2 to 4, eFigures 1 to 7).

Forest plot (random-effects model): All mental illness. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI : 95% confidence interval
Figure 2
Forest plot (random-effects model): All mental illness. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI : 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): substance-related disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Figure 3
Forest plot (random-effects model): substance-related disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Alcohol dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval
Figure 4
Forest plot (random-effects model): Alcohol dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Axis I disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 1
Forest plot (random-effects model): Axis I disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Psychotic illnesses. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 2
Forest plot (random-effects model): Psychotic illnesses. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Affective disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 3
Forest plot (random-effects model): Affective disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Drug dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 4
Forest plot (random-effects model): Drug dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Anxiety disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 5
Forest plot (random-effects model): Anxiety disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Cognitive deficit. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 6
Forest plot (random-effects model): Cognitive deficit. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Personality disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 7
Forest plot (random-effects model): Personality disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval

Overall heterogeneity was high (I2 ranged from 58.66% to 96.84%, Q from 12.09 to 63.36). Subgroup analysis shed further light on individual factors (eTable 2).

Discussion

This systematic review and meta-analysis of mental illness among the homeless in Germany included 11 studies, covering 1220 individuals. We found a prevalence of alcohol dependency 1.5 times higher than in other Western countries (including the USA, the United Kingdom, and Australia) (55.4% [49.2; 61.5] versus 37.9% [27.8; 48.0]) (7). Prevalence rates of psychotic illnesses and drug dependency were lower than in other Western countries (Table 2).

Point prevalences of mental illnesses
Table 2
Point prevalences of mental illnesses

The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1, Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland), conducted between 2008 and 2011 in a sample representative of the population, found a one-month prevalence rate of DSM-IV disorders of 19.8% (e4). Our data on the homeless thus yielded a mental illness rate 3.8 times higher than in the general population. This includes all disorder spectra (Table 2). The prevalence of substance-related disorders was 21 times higher than in the general population (2.9%) (e4), and that of alcohol dependency was 22 times higher. In the general population the rate of alcohol dependency and alcohol abuse combined was 2.5% (e4).

There are 3 possible models that might explain the substantially higher rates of alcohol dependency:

  • The fact that the support system is partly based on abstinence makes it harder for those particularly at risk to access: numerous international studies on the housing-first concept (e5) show that low-threshold accommodation and support that accepts alcohol consumption enable homeless people to be taken off the streets.
  • The availability and price regulation of addictive drugs, which in Germany depends on comparatively low alcohol prices, may be an additional factor. In contrast, the rates of dependency on other substances such as crack or other stimulants are significantly higher in North America than among German homeless people (e6). Alcohol, meanwhile, is comparatively expensive there, and its use among the homeless is less widespread (e6).
  • The consumption of psychotropic substances is a major coping strategy among those who are marginalized and have few other resources to solve their problems and very little access to the support system (e7).

The extent to which mental illness or substance abuse and homelessness are interrelated is a subject of ongoing discussion. It seems uncontroversial that each affects the other. A recently published meta-analysis of US veterans suggests that mental illness and substance abuse are the most consistent risk factors for becoming homeless (e8). Both substance abuse and homelessness can be associated with increased mortality: Tsai et al. report alcohol-associated mortality between 3 and 5 times higher, and drug-associated mortality between 8 and 17 times higher, among the homeless than in the general population (e9). Canadian data also shows that mental illness and substance abuse are associated with becoming homeless at an early age (e10).

This research yielded a pooled prevalence of 11.7% [6.0; 18.9] for significant cognitive deficits. Limited cognitive function, for example due to traumatic brain injury, is widespread among the homeless (e11). Tsai et al. also identified cognitive deficits as an important risk factor for homelessness (e9). Thus both severe substance abuse and traumatic brain injury increase the probability of cognitive deficits (e6).

Subgroup analysis revealed interesting findings for individual subgroups of homeless individuals. One important factor is sex. Only 131 (10.7%) of the total of 1220 homeless people were female. Our subgroup analyses found particularly high prevalence rates in studies involving only female homeless people for all Axis I disorders (83.3% [56.9; 100.0] versus 76.6% [68.7; 83.7]), psychotic illnesses (23.1% [5.0; 47.7] versus 7.6% [5.8; 9.7]), and drug dependency (24.6% [17.4; 32.6] versus 10.1% [4.8; 16.9]). This means that females are a particularly at-risk group. Although there was only one study in female homeless people that examined affective disorders, this also showed a higher prevalence rate, 46.9%, than in male homeless people only (14.6% [9.4; 20.6]). There were lower prevalence rates among homeless women compared to men for substance-related disorders and alcohol dependency. Homeless women are a subgroup that may be confronted with particular difficulties: estimated numbers of unreported homeless women are particularly high, as women are less likely to live directly on the streets and more likely to live in the homes of acquaintances, so their homelessness is more likely to go undetected, and they often do not use the available support system (e12, e13). As a result, homeless women are more frequently confronted with difficulties such as dependency on others and lack of safeguards (e12, e13). Because study sampling focused mainly on homeless people on the streets or in homeless shelters, homeless women have not yet been sufficiently researched.

In studies with participation rates above 80% only, the prevalence of Axis I disorders was 84.0% [74.7; 91.6] (versus 73.3% [68.5; 77.9] for studies with participation rates below 80%). There was a similar trend for psychotic illnesses (prevalence 9.8% [4.9; 16.0] for participation rates above 80% versus 8.6% [3.5; 10.5] for participation rates below 80%). Fazel et al. found a comparable correlation between high participation rates and high prevalences of depressive disorders and personality disorders (7, e14). The explanation for this correlation may be a refusal to participate in studies by individuals with more severe symptoms (7, e14). The correlation between lower prevalence rates and low participation rates suggests that homeless people should be investigated particularly thoroughly, e.g. via repeat questionnaires or data collection from other, additional sources (7).

Subgroup analyses for time of data collection (2000 onwards) highlight the lack of recent studies. The pooled prevalence of Axis I disorders in studies conducted after 2000 was lower than in older studies (73.3% [68.5; 77.9] versus 80.6% [71.1; 88.5]). However, the prevalence of psychotic illnesses was slightly higher in studies conducted after 2000 (8.6% [3.9; 14.7] versus 8.2% [4.9; 12.2]). This supports the idea put forward by some authors that psychotic illnesses have increased over time among homeless people due to factors such as dehospitalization (e15, e16).

Pooled prevalence rates were almost all lower in studies with sample size above 100 participants only than in studies with smaller case numbers. This was true of Axis I disorders, psychotic illnesses, affective disorders, alcohol and drug dependency, anxiety disorders, and cognitive disorders. It therefore seems advisable to interpret studies with lower case numbers cautiously in general, as they may indicate falsely high prevalence rates.

Outlook

This research raises several questions which might be addressed in future studies on homelessness in Germany:

  • Studies on this subject do not have a uniform definition of homelessness. Some studies have investigated only people living on the streets; others have also included those living in homeless shelters. We consider it appropriate for future work to be guided by the definition laid down by the European Commission, which includes all people with no fixed address (e17).
  • Studies have not included enough homeless women: the majority have investigated all-male populations, which makes it difficult to take sufficient account of the needs of homeless women. Only 10.7% of the total of 1220 homeless people were female.
  • Non-German-speaking homeless people, and therefore refugees and those with a background of migration, remain underresearched.
  • In addition, sample sizes are often small, and the data collection tools used vary. This makes comparison difficult. Personality disorders were examined in only 3 studies (2, 12, 21, 24, 25).

One limitation of our analysis is the fact that multiple studies were conducted in Munich. It is therefore possible that individual participants may have been included in studies more than once. (Study intervals were between 4 and 14 years.) In addition, all the studies were conducted in towns and cities, where the risk of mental illness is generally higher than in rural areas (e18).

Social marginalization and homelessness are a highly charged, growing problem among those with mental issues. There is an urgent need for social, political, and psychiatric bodies to develop care models for this at-risk group. International studies have found assertive community treatment (ACT) programs that provide an intensive level of care directly on the streets or in homeless shelters, and intensive case management (ICM) programs, particularly beneficial in caring for homeless people with mental illness (e5, e19). Critical factors in care are strategies involving reach-out programs and a continuous active contact, as tailored and low-threshold support are especially important for this particularly at-risk group. An example of the use of such low-threshold support that involves visiting individuals is the „Mainz Model,“ which operates according to the principle, „if the patient doesn‘t come to the doctor, the doctor must go to the patient“ (e20). This approach can also be used to prevent homelessness: models in Mannheim and Freiburg have shown that early referral of individuals at risk of becoming homeless for specialized psychiatric treatment led to improved quality of life and social support (e21). The mortality and need for urgent care of homeless people is increased not only by mental illness, examined here, but also by somatic illness. Both comprise an important subject for research and care (11). Access to treatment is a particularly severe problem.

A recently published EU study of access to the support system for socially marginalized groups identified the following factors as particularly requiring improvements in care:

  • Work visiting homeless people in communities
  • Support aimed at preventing emergencies, in order to reduce the burden on acute hospital care
  • Improvements in interfacing problems
  • More intensive community relations (e22)

In this context, it seems particularly important to evaluate international experiences as bases for further work and to discuss care models and the extent to which they can be transferred to other settings.

Acknowledgement
We would like to express particular gratitude to Prof. Seena Fazel, University of Oxford, UK, for his support in performing the meta-analysis.

We would like to thank Gabriele Menzel of the Charité Library for her help in performing the systematic search of the literature.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.

Manuscript received on 27 March 2017, revised version accepted on
5 July 2017.

Translated from the original German by Caroline Shimakawa-Devitt, M.A.

Corresponding author:
Dr. med. Stefanie Schreiter
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Charité Campus Mitte
Charitéplatz 1
10117 Berlin, Germany
stefanie.schreiter@charite.de

Supplementary material
For eReferences please refer to:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/ref4017

Figures, eTables:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/17m0665

1.
Garcia C: Karl Wilmanns und die Landstreicher. Nervenarzt 1986; 57: 227–32 MEDLINE
2.
Klinikum rechts der Isar: Jahn T, Brönner M: Die SEEWOLF-Studie – eine Zusammenfassung. www.mri.tum.de/sites/www.mri.tum.de/files/pressemeldungen/seewolf-studie_-_eine_zusammenfassung_0.pdf. (last accessed on 3 July 2017).
3.
Vazquez C, Munoz M, Sanz J: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R mental disorders among the homeless in Madrid: a European study using the CIDI. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997; 95: 523–30 CrossRef
4.
Herrman H, McGorry P, Bennett P, van Riel R, Singh B: Prevalence of severe mental disorders in disaffiliated and homeless people in inner Melbourne. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146: 1179–84 CrossRef MEDLINE
5.
Nielsen SF, Hjorthøj CR, Erlangsen A, Nordentoft M: Psychiatric disorders and mortality among people in homeless shelters in Denmark: a nationwide register-based cohort study. Lancet 2011; 377: 2205–14 CrossRef
6.
Koegel P, Burnam MA, Farr RK: The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among homeless individuals in the inner city of Los Angeles. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 1085–92 CrossRef
7.
Fazel S, Khosla V, Doll H, Geddes J: The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in Western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. PLoS Med 2008; 5: 1670–81 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
8.
Prigerson HG, Desai RA, Liu-Mares W, Rosenheck RA: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in homeless mentally ill persons: age-specific risks of substance abuse. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003; 38: 213–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
9.
Babidge NC, Buhrich N, Butler T: Mortality among homeless people with schizophrenia in Sydney, Australia: a 10-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001; 103: 105–10 CrossRef
10.
Barrow SM, Herman DB, Córdova P, Struening EL: Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 529–34 CrossRef
11.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Cuntz U: Prävalenz körperlicher und seelischer Erkrankungen. Dtsch Arztebl 2000; 97: A-1148–54.
12.
Völlm B, Becker H, Kunstmann W: Prävalenz körperlicher Erkrankungen, Gesundheitsverhalten und Nutzung des Gesundheitssystems bei alleinstehenden wohnungslosen Männern: eine Querschnittsuntersuchung. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin 2004; 49: 42–50 CrossRef
13.
Fazel S, Grann M: The population impact of severe mental illness on violent crime. Am J Psych 2006; 163: 1397–403 CrossRef MEDLINE
14.
Brennan P, Mednick S, Hodgins S: Major mental disorders and criminal violence in a Danish birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 494–500 CrossRef
15.
Gelberg L, Linn L, Leake B: Mental health, alcohol and drug use, and criminal history among homeless adults. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145: 191–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
16.
Walsh E, Moran P, Scott C, et al.: Prevalence of violent victimisation in severe mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 2003;183:233–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
17.
Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Wohnungslosenhilfe: Zahl der Wohnungslosen in Deutschland. www.bagw.de/de/themen/zahl_der_wohnungslosen/index.html (last accessed on 21 March 2017).
18.
Canavan R, Barry MM, Matanov A, et al.:Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities. BMC Health Serv Res 2012; 12: 222 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
19.
Barendregt JJ, Doi SA, Lee YY, Norman RE, Vos T: Meta-analysis of prevalence. J Epidemiol Community Health 2013; 67: 974–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.
Stroup DF: MOOSE Statement: Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000; 283: 2008 CrossRef
21.
Völlm B, Becker H, Kunstmann W: Psychiatrische Morbidität bei allein stehenden wohnungslosen Männern. Psychiatr Prax 2004; 31: 236–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.
Torchalla I, Albrecht F, Buchkremer G, Längle G: Wohnungslose Frauen mit psychischer Erkrankung – eine Feldstudie. Psychiatr Prax 2004; 31: 228–35 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.
Salize HJ, Horst A, Dillmann-Lange C, et al.: Wie beurteilen psychisch kranke Wohnungslose ihre Lebensqualität? Psychiatr Prax 2001; 28: 75–80 CrossRef MEDLINE
24.
Salize HJ, Horst A, Dillmann-Lange C, et al.: Needs for mental health care and service provision in single homeless people. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001; 36: 207–16 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.
Salize HJ, Dillmann-Lange C, Stern G, et al.: Alcoholism and somatic comorbidity among homeless people in Mannheim, Germany. Addiction 2002; 97: 1593–600 CrossRef MEDLINE
26.
Reker T, Eikelmann B, Folkerts H: Prävalenz psychischer Störungen und Verlauf der sozialen Integration bei wohnungslosen Männern. Gesundheitswesen 1997; 59: 79–82 MEDLINE
27.
Quadflieg N, Fichter M: Ist die Zuweisung dauerhaften Wohnraums an Obdachlose eine effektive Maßnahme? Eine prospektive Studie über drei Jahre zum Verlauf pschischer Beschwerden. Psychiatr Prax 2007; 34: 276–82 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.
Podschus J, Dufeu P: Alkoholabhängigkeit unter wohnungslosen Männern in Berlin. Sucht 1995; 41: 348–54.
29.
Meller I, Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Koniarczyk M, Greifenhagen A, Wolz J: Die Inanspruchnahme medizinischer und psychosozialer Dienste durch psychisch erkrankte Obdachlose: Ergebnisse einer epidemiologischen Studie. Nervenarzt 2000; 71: 543–51 CrossRef
30.
Längle G, Egerter B, Albrecht F, Petrasch M, Buchkremer G: Prevalence of mental illness among homeless men in the community: approach to a full census in a southern German university town. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005; 40: 382–90 CrossRef MEDLINE
31.
Greifenhagen A, Fichter M: Mental illness in homeless women: an epidemiological study in Munich, Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 247: 162–72 CrossRef
32.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Greifenhagen A, Koniarczyk M, Wölz J: Alcoholism among homeless men in Munich, Germany. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 64–74 CrossRef
33.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Prevalence of mental illness in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a representative sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001; 103: 94–104 CrossRef
34.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Course of alcoholism in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample. Subst Use Misuse 2003; 38: 395–427 CrossRef
35.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Three year course and outcome of mental illness in homeless men: a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 255: 111–20 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Intervention effects of supplying homeless individuals with permanent housing: a 3-year prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006; 113: 36–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
37.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Psychische Erkrankung bei obdachlosen Männern und Frauen in München. Psychiatr Prax 1999; 26: 76–84 MEDLINE
38.
Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Alcoholism in homeless men in the mid-nineties: Results from the Bavarian Public Health study on homelessness. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249: 34–44 CrossRef
39.
Fichter M, Koniarczyk M, Greifenhagen A, et al.: Mental illness in a representative sample of homeless men in Munich, Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996; 246: 185–96 CrossRef MEDLINE
40.
Dufeu P, Podschus J, Schmidt LG: Alkoholabhängigkeit bei männlichen Wohnungslosen. Nervenarzt 1996; 67: 930–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
e1.
Brönner M, Baur B, Pitschel-Walz G, Jahn T, Bäuml J: Seelische Erkrankungsrate in den Einrichtungen der Wohnungslosenhilfe im Großraum München: die SEEWOLF-Studie. Arch für Wiss und Prax der sozialen Arbeit 2013; 1: 65–71.
e2.
Rossi PH, Wright JD, Fisher GA, Willis G. The urban homeless: estimating composition and size. Science 1987; 235: 1336–41 CrossRef MEDLINE
e3.
Salize HJ, Dillmann-Lange C, Stern G, Stamm K, Rössler W, Henn F: Alcoholism and somatic comorbidity among homeless people in Mannheim, Germany. Addiction 2002; 97: 1593–1600 CrossRef
e4.
Jacobi F, Wittchen HU, Holting C, et al.: Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS). Psychol Med 2004, 34: 597–611.
e5.
Goering PN, Streiner DL, Adair C: The At Home/Chez Soi trial protocol: a pragmatic, multi-site, randomised controlled trial of a housing first intervention for homeless individuals with mental illness in five Canadian cities. BMJ Open 2011; 1: 1–18.
e6.
Krausz R, Strehlau V, Schuetz C: Obdachlos, mittellos, hoffnungslos – Substanzkonsum, psychische Erkrankungen und Wohnungslosigkeit: ein Forschungsbericht aus den USA und Kanada. Suchttherapie 2016; 17: 131–6 CrossRef
e7.
Khantzian EJ: Self-regulation and self-medication factors in alcoholism and the addictions. Similarities and differences. Recent Dev Alcohol 1990; 8: 255–71 MEDLINE
e8.
Depp CA, Vella L, Orff HJ, Twamley EW: A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults. J Nerv Ment Disord 2015; 203: 126–31 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e9.
Tsai J, Rosenheck RA: Risk factors for homelessness among US Veterans Jack. Epidemiol Rev 2015; 37: 177–95 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e10.
Cambioli L, Krausz M: Are substance use and mental illness associated to an earlier onset of homelessness? Ment Health Fam Med 2016; 12: 205–12.
e11.
Nikoo M, Gadermann A, To MJ, Krausz M, Hwang SW, Palepu A: Incidence and associated risk factors of traumatic brain injury in a cohort of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2017; 32: E19–26 CrossRef MEDLINE
e12.
Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Wohnungslosenhilfe e. V. BAG Informationen: Weibliche Wohnungsnot. www.bagw.de/media/doc/POS_03_Frauen_Wohnungslosigkeit_Wohnungsnot.pdf. (last accessed 21 March 2017)
e13.
Riege M: Frauen in Wohnungsnot. Erscheinungsformen – Ursachenanalyse – Lösungsstrategien – Forderungen. Kinder und Frauen zuletzt?! Frauen Wohnungsnot VSH Verlag für Soz Hilfe. 1994; 25: 9–24.
e14.
Fazel S, Geddes JR, Kushel M: The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations. Lancet 2014; 384: 1529–40 CrossRef
e15.
Lamb HR: Deinstitutionalization and the homeless mentally ill. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1984; 35: 899–907 MEDLINE
e16.
North CS, Eyrich KM, Pollio DE, Spitznagel EL: Are rates of psychiatric disorders in the homeless population changing? Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 103–8 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e17.
Europäische Kommission: Messung der Obdachlosigkeit in Europa 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=1998&langId=de (last accessed March 21st 2017).
e18.
Gruebner O, Rapp MA, Adli M, Kluge U, Galea S, Heinz A: Cities and mental health. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 121–7 VOLLTEXT
e19.
Nelson G, Aubry T, Lafrance A: A review of the literature on the effectiveness of housing and support, assertive community treatment, and intensive case management interventions for persons with mental illness who have been homeless. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2007; 77: 350–61 CrossRef MEDLINE
e20.
Trabert G: Medizinische Versorgung für wohnungslose Menschen – individuelles Recht und soziale Pflicht statt Exklusion. Gesundheitswesen 2016; 78: 107–12 CrossRef MEDLINE
e21.
Salize HJ, Arnold M, Uber E, Hoell A: Verbesserung der psychiatrischen Behandlungsprävalenz bei Risikopersonen vor dem Abrutschen in die Wohnungslosigkeit. Psychiatr Prax 2017; 44: 21–28 MEDLINE
e22.
Priebe S, Matanov A, Schor R, et al.: Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries. BMC Public Health. BioMed Central 2012; 12: 248 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität of Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy: Dr. med. Schreiter, Dr. med. Gutwinski, PD Dr. med. Schouler-Ocak, Prof. Dr. med. Bermpohl
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Kanada: Prof. Dr. med. Krausz
Psychiatric Clinic of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Prof. Dr. med. Leucht
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zürich: Prof. Dr. med. Rössler
Flow diagram Literature search process
Figure 1
Flow diagram Literature search process
Forest plot (random-effects model): All mental illness. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI : 95% confidence interval
Figure 2
Forest plot (random-effects model): All mental illness. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI : 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): substance-related disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Figure 3
Forest plot (random-effects model): substance-related disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Alcohol dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval
Figure 4
Forest plot (random-effects model): Alcohol dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval
Key messages
Details of included studies
Table 1
Details of included studies
Point prevalences of mental illnesses
Table 2
Point prevalences of mental illnesses
Forest plot (random-effects model): Axis I disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 1
Forest plot (random-effects model): Axis I disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Psychotic illnesses. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 2
Forest plot (random-effects model): Psychotic illnesses. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Affective disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 3
Forest plot (random-effects model): Affective disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Drug dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 4
Forest plot (random-effects model): Drug dependency. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Anxiety disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 5
Forest plot (random-effects model): Anxiety disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Cognitive deficit. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 6
Forest plot (random-effects model): Cognitive deficit. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
Forest plot (random-effects model): Personality disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
eFigure 7
Forest plot (random-effects model): Personality disorders. Prev.: Prevalence; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
1. Garcia C: Karl Wilmanns und die Landstreicher. Nervenarzt 1986; 57: 227–32 MEDLINE
2.Klinikum rechts der Isar: Jahn T, Brönner M: Die SEEWOLF-Studie – eine Zusammenfassung. www.mri.tum.de/sites/www.mri.tum.de/files/pressemeldungen/seewolf-studie_-_eine_zusammenfassung_0.pdf. (last accessed on 3 July 2017).
3. Vazquez C, Munoz M, Sanz J: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R mental disorders among the homeless in Madrid: a European study using the CIDI. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997; 95: 523–30 CrossRef
4. Herrman H, McGorry P, Bennett P, van Riel R, Singh B: Prevalence of severe mental disorders in disaffiliated and homeless people in inner Melbourne. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146: 1179–84 CrossRef MEDLINE
5.Nielsen SF, Hjorthøj CR, Erlangsen A, Nordentoft M: Psychiatric disorders and mortality among people in homeless shelters in Denmark: a nationwide register-based cohort study. Lancet 2011; 377: 2205–14 CrossRef
6.Koegel P, Burnam MA, Farr RK: The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among homeless individuals in the inner city of Los Angeles. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 1085–92 CrossRef
7.Fazel S, Khosla V, Doll H, Geddes J: The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in Western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. PLoS Med 2008; 5: 1670–81 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
8.Prigerson HG, Desai RA, Liu-Mares W, Rosenheck RA: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in homeless mentally ill persons: age-specific risks of substance abuse. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003; 38: 213–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
9.Babidge NC, Buhrich N, Butler T: Mortality among homeless people with schizophrenia in Sydney, Australia: a 10-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001; 103: 105–10 CrossRef
10. Barrow SM, Herman DB, Córdova P, Struening EL: Mortality among homeless shelter residents in New York City. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 529–34 CrossRef
11.Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Cuntz U: Prävalenz körperlicher und seelischer Erkrankungen. Dtsch Arztebl 2000; 97: A-1148–54.
12.Völlm B, Becker H, Kunstmann W: Prävalenz körperlicher Erkrankungen, Gesundheitsverhalten und Nutzung des Gesundheitssystems bei alleinstehenden wohnungslosen Männern: eine Querschnittsuntersuchung. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin 2004; 49: 42–50 CrossRef
13.Fazel S, Grann M: The population impact of severe mental illness on violent crime. Am J Psych 2006; 163: 1397–403 CrossRef MEDLINE
14.Brennan P, Mednick S, Hodgins S: Major mental disorders and criminal violence in a Danish birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 494–500 CrossRef
15.Gelberg L, Linn L, Leake B: Mental health, alcohol and drug use, and criminal history among homeless adults. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145: 191–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
16.Walsh E, Moran P, Scott C, et al.: Prevalence of violent victimisation in severe mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 2003;183:233–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
17.Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Wohnungslosenhilfe: Zahl der Wohnungslosen in Deutschland. www.bagw.de/de/themen/zahl_der_wohnungslosen/index.html (last accessed on 21 March 2017).
18.Canavan R, Barry MM, Matanov A, et al.:Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities. BMC Health Serv Res 2012; 12: 222 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
19.Barendregt JJ, Doi SA, Lee YY, Norman RE, Vos T: Meta-analysis of prevalence. J Epidemiol Community Health 2013; 67: 974–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.Stroup DF: MOOSE Statement: Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000; 283: 2008 CrossRef
21.Völlm B, Becker H, Kunstmann W: Psychiatrische Morbidität bei allein stehenden wohnungslosen Männern. Psychiatr Prax 2004; 31: 236–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.Torchalla I, Albrecht F, Buchkremer G, Längle G: Wohnungslose Frauen mit psychischer Erkrankung – eine Feldstudie. Psychiatr Prax 2004; 31: 228–35 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.Salize HJ, Horst A, Dillmann-Lange C, et al.: Wie beurteilen psychisch kranke Wohnungslose ihre Lebensqualität? Psychiatr Prax 2001; 28: 75–80 CrossRef MEDLINE
24.Salize HJ, Horst A, Dillmann-Lange C, et al.: Needs for mental health care and service provision in single homeless people. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001; 36: 207–16 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Salize HJ, Dillmann-Lange C, Stern G, et al.: Alcoholism and somatic comorbidity among homeless people in Mannheim, Germany. Addiction 2002; 97: 1593–600 CrossRef MEDLINE
26. Reker T, Eikelmann B, Folkerts H: Prävalenz psychischer Störungen und Verlauf der sozialen Integration bei wohnungslosen Männern. Gesundheitswesen 1997; 59: 79–82 MEDLINE
27.Quadflieg N, Fichter M: Ist die Zuweisung dauerhaften Wohnraums an Obdachlose eine effektive Maßnahme? Eine prospektive Studie über drei Jahre zum Verlauf pschischer Beschwerden. Psychiatr Prax 2007; 34: 276–82 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.Podschus J, Dufeu P: Alkoholabhängigkeit unter wohnungslosen Männern in Berlin. Sucht 1995; 41: 348–54.
29.Meller I, Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Koniarczyk M, Greifenhagen A, Wolz J: Die Inanspruchnahme medizinischer und psychosozialer Dienste durch psychisch erkrankte Obdachlose: Ergebnisse einer epidemiologischen Studie. Nervenarzt 2000; 71: 543–51 CrossRef
30.Längle G, Egerter B, Albrecht F, Petrasch M, Buchkremer G: Prevalence of mental illness among homeless men in the community: approach to a full census in a southern German university town. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005; 40: 382–90 CrossRef MEDLINE
31.Greifenhagen A, Fichter M: Mental illness in homeless women: an epidemiological study in Munich, Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 247: 162–72 CrossRef
32.Fichter M, Quadflieg N, Greifenhagen A, Koniarczyk M, Wölz J: Alcoholism among homeless men in Munich, Germany. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 64–74 CrossRef
33.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Prevalence of mental illness in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a representative sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001; 103: 94–104 CrossRef
34.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Course of alcoholism in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample. Subst Use Misuse 2003; 38: 395–427 CrossRef
35.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Three year course and outcome of mental illness in homeless men: a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 255: 111–20 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Intervention effects of supplying homeless individuals with permanent housing: a 3-year prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006; 113: 36–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
37.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Psychische Erkrankung bei obdachlosen Männern und Frauen in München. Psychiatr Prax 1999; 26: 76–84 MEDLINE
38.Fichter M, Quadflieg N: Alcoholism in homeless men in the mid-nineties: Results from the Bavarian Public Health study on homelessness. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249: 34–44 CrossRef
39.Fichter M, Koniarczyk M, Greifenhagen A, et al.: Mental illness in a representative sample of homeless men in Munich, Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996; 246: 185–96 CrossRef MEDLINE
40. Dufeu P, Podschus J, Schmidt LG: Alkoholabhängigkeit bei männlichen Wohnungslosen. Nervenarzt 1996; 67: 930–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
e1. Brönner M, Baur B, Pitschel-Walz G, Jahn T, Bäuml J: Seelische Erkrankungsrate in den Einrichtungen der Wohnungslosenhilfe im Großraum München: die SEEWOLF-Studie. Arch für Wiss und Prax der sozialen Arbeit 2013; 1: 65–71.
e2.Rossi PH, Wright JD, Fisher GA, Willis G. The urban homeless: estimating composition and size. Science 1987; 235: 1336–41 CrossRef MEDLINE
e3.Salize HJ, Dillmann-Lange C, Stern G, Stamm K, Rössler W, Henn F: Alcoholism and somatic comorbidity among homeless people in Mannheim, Germany. Addiction 2002; 97: 1593–1600 CrossRef
e4.Jacobi F, Wittchen HU, Holting C, et al.: Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS). Psychol Med 2004, 34: 597–611.
e5.Goering PN, Streiner DL, Adair C: The At Home/Chez Soi trial protocol: a pragmatic, multi-site, randomised controlled trial of a housing first intervention for homeless individuals with mental illness in five Canadian cities. BMJ Open 2011; 1: 1–18.
e6.Krausz R, Strehlau V, Schuetz C: Obdachlos, mittellos, hoffnungslos – Substanzkonsum, psychische Erkrankungen und Wohnungslosigkeit: ein Forschungsbericht aus den USA und Kanada. Suchttherapie 2016; 17: 131–6 CrossRef
e7.Khantzian EJ: Self-regulation and self-medication factors in alcoholism and the addictions. Similarities and differences. Recent Dev Alcohol 1990; 8: 255–71 MEDLINE
e8.Depp CA, Vella L, Orff HJ, Twamley EW: A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults. J Nerv Ment Disord 2015; 203: 126–31 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e9.Tsai J, Rosenheck RA: Risk factors for homelessness among US Veterans Jack. Epidemiol Rev 2015; 37: 177–95 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e10. Cambioli L, Krausz M: Are substance use and mental illness associated to an earlier onset of homelessness? Ment Health Fam Med 2016; 12: 205–12.
e11. Nikoo M, Gadermann A, To MJ, Krausz M, Hwang SW, Palepu A: Incidence and associated risk factors of traumatic brain injury in a cohort of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2017; 32: E19–26 CrossRef MEDLINE
e12.Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Wohnungslosenhilfe e. V. BAG Informationen: Weibliche Wohnungsnot. www.bagw.de/media/doc/POS_03_Frauen_Wohnungslosigkeit_Wohnungsnot.pdf. (last accessed 21 March 2017)
e13.Riege M: Frauen in Wohnungsnot. Erscheinungsformen – Ursachenanalyse – Lösungsstrategien – Forderungen. Kinder und Frauen zuletzt?! Frauen Wohnungsnot VSH Verlag für Soz Hilfe. 1994; 25: 9–24.
e14.Fazel S, Geddes JR, Kushel M: The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations. Lancet 2014; 384: 1529–40 CrossRef
e15.Lamb HR: Deinstitutionalization and the homeless mentally ill. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1984; 35: 899–907 MEDLINE
e16.North CS, Eyrich KM, Pollio DE, Spitznagel EL: Are rates of psychiatric disorders in the homeless population changing? Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 103–8 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e17.Europäische Kommission: Messung der Obdachlosigkeit in Europa 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=1998&langId=de (last accessed March 21st 2017).
e18.Gruebner O, Rapp MA, Adli M, Kluge U, Galea S, Heinz A: Cities and mental health. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 121–7 VOLLTEXT
e19.Nelson G, Aubry T, Lafrance A: A review of the literature on the effectiveness of housing and support, assertive community treatment, and intensive case management interventions for persons with mental illness who have been homeless. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2007; 77: 350–61 CrossRef MEDLINE
e20.Trabert G: Medizinische Versorgung für wohnungslose Menschen – individuelles Recht und soziale Pflicht statt Exklusion. Gesundheitswesen 2016; 78: 107–12 CrossRef MEDLINE
e21.Salize HJ, Arnold M, Uber E, Hoell A: Verbesserung der psychiatrischen Behandlungsprävalenz bei Risikopersonen vor dem Abrutschen in die Wohnungslosigkeit. Psychiatr Prax 2017; 44: 21–28 MEDLINE
e22. Priebe S, Matanov A, Schor R, et al.: Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries. BMC Public Health. BioMed Central 2012; 12: 248 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central