DÄ internationalArchive51-52/2018The diagnosis and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning

Review article

The diagnosis and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115(51-52): 863-70; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0863

Eichhorn, L; Thudium, M; Jüttner, B

LNSLNS
1.
Eichhorn L, Michaelis D, Kemmerer M, Jüttner B, Tetzlaff K: Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Toxicol Phila Pa 2018; 56: 264–72 CrossRef MEDLINE
2.
Rose JJ, Wang L, Xu Q, et al.: Carbon monoxide poisoning: pathogenesis, management, and future directions of therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017; 195: 596–606 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
3.
Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council. Acute exposure guideline levels for selected airborne chemicals: volume 8. www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-11/documents/carbon_monoxide_final_volume8_2010.pdf (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
4.
Culnan DM, Craft-Coffman B, Bitz GH, et al.: Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning in the burned pregnant patient: an indication for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Ann Plast Surg 2018; 80(3 Suppl 2): 106–12 CrossRef
5.
Chiew AL, Buckley NA: Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century. Crit Care 2014; 18: 221 CrossRef PubMed Central
6.
Roderique JD, Josef CS, Feldman MJ, Spiess BD: A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement. Toxicology 2015; 334: 45–58 CrossRef MEDLINE
7.
Weaver LK: Carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1217–25 CrossRef MEDLINE
8.
Hampson NB, Dunn SL, UHMCS/CDC CO Poisoning Surveillance Group: Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning do not correlate with the initial carboxyhemoglobin level. Undersea Hyperb Med 2012; 39: 657–65 MEDLINE
9.
Pepe G, Castelli M, Nazerian P, et al.: Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the emergency department. A retrospective study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2011; 19: 16 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
10.
Weaver LK, Hopkins RO, Chan KJ, et al.: Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1057–67 CrossRef MEDLINE
11.
Wong CS, Lin YC, Hong LY, et al.: Increased long-term risk of dementia in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95: e2549 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
12.
Lettow I, Hoffmann A, Burmeister HP, Toepper R: [Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018; 86: 342–7 CrossRef CrossRef MEDLINE
13.
Satran D, Henry CR, Adkinson C, Nicholson CI, Bracha Y, Henry TD: Cardiovascular manifestations of moderate to severe carbon monoxide poisoning. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1513–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
14.
Henry CR, Satran D, Lindgren B, Adkinson C, Nicholson CI, Henry TD: Myocardial injury and long-term mortality following moderate to severe carbon monoxide poisoning. JAMA 2006; 295: 398–402 CrossRef MEDLINE
15.
Wong CS, Lin YC, Sung LC, et al.: Increased long-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning: a population-based study in Taiwan. PLoS ONE 2017; 12: e0176465 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
16.
Lee FY, Chen WK, Lin CL, Kao CH: Carbon monoxide poisoning and subsequent cardiovascular disease risk. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94: e624 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
17.
Huang CC, Chung MH, Weng SF, et al.: Long-term prognosis of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning: a nationwide cohort study. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e105503 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
18.
Kaya H, Coşkun A, Beton O, et al.: COHgb levels predict the long-term development of acute myocardial infarction in CO poisoning. Am J Emerg Med 2016; 34: 840–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
19.
Huang CC, Ho CH, Chen YC, et al.: Increased risk for diabetes mellitus in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oncotarget 2017; 8: 63680–90 CrossRef
20.
Wolf SJ, Maloney GE, Shih RD, Shy BD, Brown MD: Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 2017; 69: 98–107 CrossRef MEDLINE
21.
Buckley NA, Juurlink DN, Isbister G, Bennett MH, Lavonas EJ: Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 4: CD002041 CrossRef
22.
Mintegi S, Clerigue N, Tipo V, et al.: Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Pediatr Emerg Care 2013; 29: 1234–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.
Truhlář A, Deakin CD, Soar J, et al.: Kreislaufstillstand in besonderen Situationen. Notf Rettungsmedizin 2015; 18: 833–903 CrossRef
24.
Mathieu D, Marroni A, Kot J: Tenth European consensus conference on hyperbaric medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Diving Hyperb Med 2017; 47: 24–32 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.
Hampson NB, Piantadosi CA, Thom SR, Weaver LK: Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 1095–101 CrossRef MEDLINE
26.
Hampson NB, Hauff NM: Risk factors for short-term mortality from carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 2523–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.
Weaver LK, Valentine KJ, Hopkins RO: Carbon monoxide poisoning: risk factors for cognitive sequelae and the role of hyperbaric oxygen. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 491–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.
Raphael JC, Elkharrat D, Jars-Guincestre MC, et al.: Trial of normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide intoxication. Lancet Lond Engl 1989; 2: 414–9 CrossRef
29.
Ducassé JL, Celsis P, Marc-Vergnes JP: Non-comatose patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning: hyperbaric or normobaric oxygenation? Undersea Hyperb Med 1995; 22: 9–15 MEDLINE
30.
Thom SR: Oxidative stress is fundamental to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2009; 106: 988–95 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
31.
Scheinkestel CD, Bailey M, Myles PS, et al.: Hyperbaric or 337 normobaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Med J Aust 1999; 170: 203–10 MEDLINE
32.
Annane D, Chadda K, Gajdos P, Jars-Guincestre MC, Chevret S, Raphael JC: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute domestic carbon monoxide poisoning: two randomized controlled trials. Intensive Care Med 2011; 37: 486–92 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.
Chang YC, Lee HY, Huang JL, Chiu CH, Chen CL, Wu CT: Risk factors and outcome analysis in children with carbon monoxide poisoning. Pediatr Neonatol 2017; 58: 171–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.
Huang CC, Ho CH, Chen YC, et al.: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is associated with lower short and long-term mortality in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Chest 2017; 152: 943–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
35.
Rose JJ, Nouraie M, Gauthier MC, et al.: Clinical outcomes and mortality impact of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Crit Care Med 2018; 46: e649–55 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.
Thom SR, Taber RL, Mendiguren II, Clark JM, Hardy KR, Fisher AB: Delayed neuropsychologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: prevention by treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25: 474–80 CrossRef
37.
Meert KL, Heidemann SM, Sarnaik AP: Outcome of children with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with normobaric oxygen. J Trauma 1998; 44: 149–54 CrossRef
38.
Chou KJ, Fisher JL, Silver EJ: Characteristics and outcome of children with carbon monoxide poisoning with and without smoke exposure referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Pediatr Emerg Care 2000; 16: 151–5 CrossRef
39.
Akcan Yildiz L, Gultekingil A, Kesici S, Bayrakci B, Teksam O: Predictors of severe clinical course in children with carbon monoxide poisoning. Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 (Epub ahead of print: doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001580 CrossRef
40.
Rodkey FL, O’Neal JD, Collison HA, Uddin DE: Relative affinity of hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Clin Chem 1974; 20: 83–4 MEDLINE
e1.
Penney D, Benignus V, Kephalopoulos S, Kotzias D, Kleinman M, Verrier A: WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. Carbon monoxide. World Health Organization 2010. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK138710/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e2.
von Rappard J, Schönenberger M, Bärlocher L: Carbon monoxide poisoning following use of a water pipe/hookah. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2014; 111: 674–9 VOLLTEXT
e3.
Hampson NB: Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: a preventable expense. Prev Med Rep 2016; 3: 21–4 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e4.
Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes – gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis. Diagnose T58 (ICD). Tabelle: Diagnosedaten der Krankenhäuser Deutschland. www.gbe-bund.de/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e5.
Hampson NB: U.S. mortality due to carbon monoxide poisoning, 1999–2014. Accidental and intentional deaths. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016; 13: 1768–74.
e6.
Joels N, Pugh LG: The carbon monoxide dissociation curve of human blood. J Physiol 1958; 142: 63–77 CrossRef
e7.
Bruce EN, Bruce MC, Erupaka K: Prediction of the rate of uptake of carbon monoxide from blood by extravascular tissues. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2008; 161: 142–59 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e8.
Kao LW, Nañagas KA: Carbon monoxide poisoning. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2004; 22: 985–1018 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.
Harper A, Croft-Baker J: Carbon monoxide poisoning: undetected by both patients and their doctors. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 105–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.
Tomaszewski C: Carbon monoxide poisoning. Early awareness and intervention can save lives. Postgrad Med 1999; 105: 39–40, 43–48, 50.
e11.
Kwon OY, Chung SP, Ha YR, Yoo IS, Kim SW: Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning. Emerg Med J 2004; 21: 250–1 CrossRef PubMed Central
e12.
Hsiao CL, Kuo HC, Huang CC: Delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication—long-term prognosis and correlation of clinical manifestations and neuroimages. Acta Neurol Taiwanica 2004; 13: 64–70.
e13.
Parkinson RB, Hopkins RO, Cleavinger HB, et al.: White matter hyperintensities and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurology 2002; 58: 1525–32 CrossRef MEDLINE
e14.
Lim PJ, Shikhare SN, Peh WCG: Clinics in diagnostic imaging (154). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Singapore Med J 2014; 55: 405–10 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e15.
Chambers CA, Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Key C: Cognitive and affective outcomes of more severe compared to less severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Brain Inj 2008; 22: 387–95 CrossRef MEDLINE
e16.
Kim DM, Lee IH, Park JY, Hwang SB, Yoo DS, Song CJ: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: MR imaging findings with clinical correlation. Diagn Interv Imaging 2017; 98: 299–306 CrossRef MEDLINE
e17.
Keleş A, Demircan A, Kurtoğlu G: Carbon monoxide poisoning: how many patients do we miss? Eur J Emerg Med 2008; 15: 154–7.
e18.
Lippi G, Rastelli G, Meschi T, Borghi L, Cervellin G: Pathophysiology, clinics, diagnosis and treatment of heart involvement in carbon monoxide poisoning. Clin Biochem 2012; 45: 1278–85 CrossRef MEDLINE
e19.
Leitlinien: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF e. V.). www.awmf.org (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e20.
National Guideline Clearinghouse, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Maryland, USA. www.guidelines.gov/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e21.
International Guideline Library: The Guidelines International Network. Perthshire, Scotland. www.g-i-n.net/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e22.
PubMed—National Library of Medicine. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e23.
Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e24.
Deutsche Leitlinien-Bewertungsinstrument (DELBI). www.leitlinien.de/leitlinien-grundlagen/leitlinienbewertung/delbi (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e25.
Semlitsch T, Blank WA, Kopp IB, Siering U, Siebenhofer A: Evaluating guidelines: a review of key quality criteria. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2015; 112: 471–8 VOLLTEXT
e26.
Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine—levels of evidence (March 2009). www.cebm.net/2009/06/oxford-centre-evidence-based-medicine-levels-evidence-march-2009/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e27.
Barker SJ, Tremper KK: The effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on pulse oximetry and transcutaneous PO2. Anesthesiology 1987; 66: 677–9 CrossRef
e28.
Bozeman WP, Myers RA, Barish RA: Confirmation of the pulse oximetry gap in carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 30: 608–11 CrossRef
e29.
Barker SJ, Curry J, Redford D, Morgan S: Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin by pulse oximetry: a human volunteer study. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 892–7 CrossRef
e30.
Roth D, Herkner H, Schreiber W, et al.: Accuracy of noninvasive multiwave pulse oximetry compared with carboxyhemoglobin from blood gas analysis in unselected emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med 2011; 58: 74–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e31.
Touger M, Birnbaum A, Wang J, Chou K, Pearson D, Bijur P: Performance of the RAD-57 pulse CO-oximeter compared with standard laboratory carboxyhemoglobin measurement. Ann Emerg Med 2010; 56: 382–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
e32.
Bickler MP, Rhodes LJ: Accuracy of detection of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in human and bovine blood with an inexpensive, pocket-size infrared scanner. PLOS ONE 2018; 13: e0193891 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e33.
Touger M, Gallagher EJ, Tyrell J: Relationship between venous and arterial carboxyhemoglobin levels in patients with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25: 481–3 CrossRef
e34.
Lopez DM, Weingarten-Arams JS, Singer LP, Conway EE: Relationship between arterial, mixed venous, and internal jugular carboxyhemoglobin concentrations at low, medium, and high concentrations in a piglet model of carbon monoxide toxicity. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1998–2001 CrossRef
e35.
Goldbaum LR, Orellano T, Dergal E: Mechanism of the toxic action of carbon monoxide. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1976; 6: 372–6 MEDLINE
e36.
Baud FJ: Akute Vergiftungen mit Kohlenmonoxid und Zyaniden. Ther Umsch 2009; 66: 387–97 CrossRef MEDLINE
e37.
Kaiser G, Schaper A: Akute Kohlenmonoxidvergiftung. Notf Rettungsmedizin 2012; 15: 429–35.
e38.
Pace R, Bon Homme M, Hoffman RS, Lugassy D: Effects of hydroxocobalamin on carboxyhemoglobin measured under physiologic and pathologic conditions. Clin Toxicol Phila Pa 2014; 52: 647–50 CrossRef MEDLINE
e39.
Baud F: Clarifications regarding interference of hydroxocobalamin with carboxyhemoglobin measurements in victims of smoke inhalation. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50: 625–6; author reply 626 CrossRef MEDLINE
e40.
Lee J, Mukai D, Kreuter K, Mahon S, Tromberg B, Brenner M: Potential interference by hydroxocobalamin on cooximetry hemoglobin measurements during cyanide and smoke inhalation treatments. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 49: 802–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e41.
Livshits Z, Lugassy DM, Shawn LK, Hoffman RS: Falsely low carboxyhemoglobin level after hydroxocobalamin therapy. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1270–1 CrossRef MEDLINE
e42.
Roderique JD, Josef CS, Newcomb AH, Reynolds PS, Somera LG, Spiess BD: Preclinical evaluation of injectable reduced hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to acute carbon monoxide poisoning. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015; 79(4 Suppl 2): S116–20 MEDLINE PubMed Central
e43.
Moallem SA, Mohamadpour AH, Abnous K, et al.: Erythropoietin in the treatment of carbon monoxide neurotoxicity in rat. Food Chem Toxicol 2015; 86: 56–64 CrossRef MEDLINE
e44.
Rezaee MA, Mohammadpour AH, Imenshahidi M, et al.: Protective effect of erythropoietin on myocardial apoptosis in rats exposed to carbon monoxide. Life Sci 2016; 148: 118–24 CrossRef MEDLINE
e45.
Hashemzaei M, Barani AK, Iranshahi M, et al.: Effects of resveratrol on carbon monoxide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016; 46: 110–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e46.
Azarov I, Wang L, Rose JJ, et al.: Five-coordinate H64Q neuroglobin as a ligand-trap antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning. Sci Transl Med 2016; 8: 368ra173.
e47.
Weaver LK, Howe S, Hopkins R, Chan KJ: Carboxyhemoglobin half-life in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients treated with 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Chest 2000; 117: 801–8 CrossRef
e48.
Pace N, Strajman E, Walker EL: Acceleration of carbon monoxide elimination in man by high pressure oxygen. Science 1950; 111: 652–4 CrossRef
e49.
Prockop LD, Chichkova RI: Carbon monoxide intoxication: an updated review. J Neurol Sci 2007; 262: 122–30 CrossRef MEDLINE
e50.
Thom SR: Antagonism of carbon monoxide-mediated brain lipid peroxidation by hyperbaric oxygen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1990; 105: 340–4 CrossRef
e51.
Jurič DM, Šuput D, Brvar M: Hyperbaric oxygen preserves neurotrophic activity of carbon monoxide-exposed astrocytes. Toxicol Lett 2016; 253: 1–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e52.
Thom SR, Bhopale VM, Fisher D: Hyperbaric oxygen reduces delayed immune-mediated neuropathology in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 213: 152–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e53.
Garrabou G, Inoriza JM, Morén C, et al.: Mitochondrial injury in human acute carbon monoxide poisoning: the effect of oxygen treatment. J Environ Sci Health Part C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2011; 29: 32–51 CrossRef MEDLINE
e54.
Meirovithz E, Sonn J, Mayevsky A: Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on brain hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and mitochondrial NADH. Brain Res Rev 2007; 54: 294–304 CrossRef MEDLINE
e55.
Liu WC, Yang SN, Wu CWJ, Chen LW, Chan JYH: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates carbon monoxide poisoning-induced delayed memory impairment by preserving brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis. Crit Care Med 2016; 44: e25–39 CrossRef MEDLINE
e56.
Xue L, Wang WL, Li Y, et al.: Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Undersea Hyperb Med 2017; 44: 121–31 CrossRef MEDLINE
e57.
Mutluoglu M, Metin S, Arziman I, Uzun G, Yildiz S: The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning in Europe. Undersea Hyperb Med 2016; 43: 49–56 MEDLINE
e58.
Bassler D, Briel M, Montori VM, et al.: Stopping randomized trials early for benefit and estimation of treatment effects: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis. JAMA 2010; 303: 1180–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
e59.
Hill EP, Hill JR, Power GG, Longo LD: Carbon monoxide exchanges between the human fetus and mother: a mathematical model. Am J Physiol 1977; 232: H311–23 MEDLINE
e60.
Longo LD, Hill EP: Carbon monoxide uptake and elimination in fetal and maternal sheep. Am J Physiol 1977; 232: H324–30 MEDLINE
e61.
Smith KA, Bryce S: Trauma in the pregnant patient: an evidence-based approach to management. Emerg Med Pract 2013; 15: 1–18.
e62.
Roderique EJD, Gebre-Giorgis AA, Stewart DH, Feldman MJ, Pozez AL: Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient. A literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case. J Burn Care Res 2012; 33: 624–33 CrossRef MEDLINE
e63.
Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes – gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis. Diagnose T58 (ICD). Tabelle: Sterbefälle. www.gbe-bund.de/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin, Bonn: Dr. med. Lars Eichhorn, Dr. med. Marcus Thudium
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin:
Prof. Dr. med. Björn Jüttner
1.Eichhorn L, Michaelis D, Kemmerer M, Jüttner B, Tetzlaff K: Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Toxicol Phila Pa 2018; 56: 264–72 CrossRef MEDLINE
2.Rose JJ, Wang L, Xu Q, et al.: Carbon monoxide poisoning: pathogenesis, management, and future directions of therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017; 195: 596–606 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
3.Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council. Acute exposure guideline levels for selected airborne chemicals: volume 8. www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-11/documents/carbon_monoxide_final_volume8_2010.pdf (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
4.Culnan DM, Craft-Coffman B, Bitz GH, et al.: Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning in the burned pregnant patient: an indication for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Ann Plast Surg 2018; 80(3 Suppl 2): 106–12 CrossRef
5.Chiew AL, Buckley NA: Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century. Crit Care 2014; 18: 221 CrossRef PubMed Central
6.Roderique JD, Josef CS, Feldman MJ, Spiess BD: A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement. Toxicology 2015; 334: 45–58 CrossRef MEDLINE
7.Weaver LK: Carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1217–25 CrossRef MEDLINE
8.Hampson NB, Dunn SL, UHMCS/CDC CO Poisoning Surveillance Group: Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning do not correlate with the initial carboxyhemoglobin level. Undersea Hyperb Med 2012; 39: 657–65 MEDLINE
9.Pepe G, Castelli M, Nazerian P, et al.: Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the emergency department. A retrospective study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2011; 19: 16 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
10.Weaver LK, Hopkins RO, Chan KJ, et al.: Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1057–67 CrossRef MEDLINE
11.Wong CS, Lin YC, Hong LY, et al.: Increased long-term risk of dementia in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95: e2549 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
12.Lettow I, Hoffmann A, Burmeister HP, Toepper R: [Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018; 86: 342–7 CrossRef CrossRef MEDLINE
13.Satran D, Henry CR, Adkinson C, Nicholson CI, Bracha Y, Henry TD: Cardiovascular manifestations of moderate to severe carbon monoxide poisoning. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1513–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
14.Henry CR, Satran D, Lindgren B, Adkinson C, Nicholson CI, Henry TD: Myocardial injury and long-term mortality following moderate to severe carbon monoxide poisoning. JAMA 2006; 295: 398–402 CrossRef MEDLINE
15.Wong CS, Lin YC, Sung LC, et al.: Increased long-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning: a population-based study in Taiwan. PLoS ONE 2017; 12: e0176465 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
16.Lee FY, Chen WK, Lin CL, Kao CH: Carbon monoxide poisoning and subsequent cardiovascular disease risk. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94: e624 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
17.Huang CC, Chung MH, Weng SF, et al.: Long-term prognosis of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning: a nationwide cohort study. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e105503 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
18.Kaya H, Coşkun A, Beton O, et al.: COHgb levels predict the long-term development of acute myocardial infarction in CO poisoning. Am J Emerg Med 2016; 34: 840–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
19.Huang CC, Ho CH, Chen YC, et al.: Increased risk for diabetes mellitus in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oncotarget 2017; 8: 63680–90 CrossRef
20.Wolf SJ, Maloney GE, Shih RD, Shy BD, Brown MD: Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 2017; 69: 98–107 CrossRef MEDLINE
21.Buckley NA, Juurlink DN, Isbister G, Bennett MH, Lavonas EJ: Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 4: CD002041 CrossRef
22.Mintegi S, Clerigue N, Tipo V, et al.: Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Pediatr Emerg Care 2013; 29: 1234–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.Truhlář A, Deakin CD, Soar J, et al.: Kreislaufstillstand in besonderen Situationen. Notf Rettungsmedizin 2015; 18: 833–903 CrossRef
24.Mathieu D, Marroni A, Kot J: Tenth European consensus conference on hyperbaric medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Diving Hyperb Med 2017; 47: 24–32 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Hampson NB, Piantadosi CA, Thom SR, Weaver LK: Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 1095–101 CrossRef MEDLINE
26.Hampson NB, Hauff NM: Risk factors for short-term mortality from carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 2523–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.Weaver LK, Valentine KJ, Hopkins RO: Carbon monoxide poisoning: risk factors for cognitive sequelae and the role of hyperbaric oxygen. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 491–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.Raphael JC, Elkharrat D, Jars-Guincestre MC, et al.: Trial of normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide intoxication. Lancet Lond Engl 1989; 2: 414–9 CrossRef
29.Ducassé JL, Celsis P, Marc-Vergnes JP: Non-comatose patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning: hyperbaric or normobaric oxygenation? Undersea Hyperb Med 1995; 22: 9–15 MEDLINE
30.Thom SR: Oxidative stress is fundamental to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2009; 106: 988–95 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
31.Scheinkestel CD, Bailey M, Myles PS, et al.: Hyperbaric or 337 normobaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Med J Aust 1999; 170: 203–10 MEDLINE
32.Annane D, Chadda K, Gajdos P, Jars-Guincestre MC, Chevret S, Raphael JC: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute domestic carbon monoxide poisoning: two randomized controlled trials. Intensive Care Med 2011; 37: 486–92 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.Chang YC, Lee HY, Huang JL, Chiu CH, Chen CL, Wu CT: Risk factors and outcome analysis in children with carbon monoxide poisoning. Pediatr Neonatol 2017; 58: 171–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.Huang CC, Ho CH, Chen YC, et al.: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is associated with lower short and long-term mortality in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Chest 2017; 152: 943–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
35.Rose JJ, Nouraie M, Gauthier MC, et al.: Clinical outcomes and mortality impact of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Crit Care Med 2018; 46: e649–55 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.Thom SR, Taber RL, Mendiguren II, Clark JM, Hardy KR, Fisher AB: Delayed neuropsychologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: prevention by treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25: 474–80 CrossRef
37.Meert KL, Heidemann SM, Sarnaik AP: Outcome of children with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with normobaric oxygen. J Trauma 1998; 44: 149–54 CrossRef
38.Chou KJ, Fisher JL, Silver EJ: Characteristics and outcome of children with carbon monoxide poisoning with and without smoke exposure referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Pediatr Emerg Care 2000; 16: 151–5 CrossRef
39.Akcan Yildiz L, Gultekingil A, Kesici S, Bayrakci B, Teksam O: Predictors of severe clinical course in children with carbon monoxide poisoning. Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 (Epub ahead of print: doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001580 CrossRef
40.Rodkey FL, O’Neal JD, Collison HA, Uddin DE: Relative affinity of hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Clin Chem 1974; 20: 83–4 MEDLINE
e1.Penney D, Benignus V, Kephalopoulos S, Kotzias D, Kleinman M, Verrier A: WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. Carbon monoxide. World Health Organization 2010. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK138710/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e2.von Rappard J, Schönenberger M, Bärlocher L: Carbon monoxide poisoning following use of a water pipe/hookah. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2014; 111: 674–9 VOLLTEXT
e3.Hampson NB: Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: a preventable expense. Prev Med Rep 2016; 3: 21–4 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e4.Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes – gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis. Diagnose T58 (ICD). Tabelle: Diagnosedaten der Krankenhäuser Deutschland. www.gbe-bund.de/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e5.Hampson NB: U.S. mortality due to carbon monoxide poisoning, 1999–2014. Accidental and intentional deaths. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016; 13: 1768–74.
e6.Joels N, Pugh LG: The carbon monoxide dissociation curve of human blood. J Physiol 1958; 142: 63–77 CrossRef
e7.Bruce EN, Bruce MC, Erupaka K: Prediction of the rate of uptake of carbon monoxide from blood by extravascular tissues. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2008; 161: 142–59 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e8.Kao LW, Nañagas KA: Carbon monoxide poisoning. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2004; 22: 985–1018 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.Harper A, Croft-Baker J: Carbon monoxide poisoning: undetected by both patients and their doctors. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 105–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.Tomaszewski C: Carbon monoxide poisoning. Early awareness and intervention can save lives. Postgrad Med 1999; 105: 39–40, 43–48, 50.
e11.Kwon OY, Chung SP, Ha YR, Yoo IS, Kim SW: Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning. Emerg Med J 2004; 21: 250–1 CrossRef PubMed Central
e12.Hsiao CL, Kuo HC, Huang CC: Delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication—long-term prognosis and correlation of clinical manifestations and neuroimages. Acta Neurol Taiwanica 2004; 13: 64–70.
e13.Parkinson RB, Hopkins RO, Cleavinger HB, et al.: White matter hyperintensities and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurology 2002; 58: 1525–32 CrossRef MEDLINE
e14.Lim PJ, Shikhare SN, Peh WCG: Clinics in diagnostic imaging (154). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Singapore Med J 2014; 55: 405–10 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e15.Chambers CA, Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Key C: Cognitive and affective outcomes of more severe compared to less severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Brain Inj 2008; 22: 387–95 CrossRef MEDLINE
e16.Kim DM, Lee IH, Park JY, Hwang SB, Yoo DS, Song CJ: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: MR imaging findings with clinical correlation. Diagn Interv Imaging 2017; 98: 299–306 CrossRef MEDLINE
e17.Keleş A, Demircan A, Kurtoğlu G: Carbon monoxide poisoning: how many patients do we miss? Eur J Emerg Med 2008; 15: 154–7.
e18.Lippi G, Rastelli G, Meschi T, Borghi L, Cervellin G: Pathophysiology, clinics, diagnosis and treatment of heart involvement in carbon monoxide poisoning. Clin Biochem 2012; 45: 1278–85 CrossRef MEDLINE
e19.Leitlinien: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF e. V.). www.awmf.org (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e20.National Guideline Clearinghouse, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Maryland, USA. www.guidelines.gov/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e21. International Guideline Library: The Guidelines International Network. Perthshire, Scotland. www.g-i-n.net/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e22.PubMed—National Library of Medicine. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e23.Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e24.Deutsche Leitlinien-Bewertungsinstrument (DELBI). www.leitlinien.de/leitlinien-grundlagen/leitlinienbewertung/delbi (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e25.Semlitsch T, Blank WA, Kopp IB, Siering U, Siebenhofer A: Evaluating guidelines: a review of key quality criteria. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2015; 112: 471–8 VOLLTEXT
e26.Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine—levels of evidence (March 2009). www.cebm.net/2009/06/oxford-centre-evidence-based-medicine-levels-evidence-march-2009/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).
e27.Barker SJ, Tremper KK: The effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on pulse oximetry and transcutaneous PO2. Anesthesiology 1987; 66: 677–9 CrossRef
e28.Bozeman WP, Myers RA, Barish RA: Confirmation of the pulse oximetry gap in carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 1997; 30: 608–11 CrossRef
e29.Barker SJ, Curry J, Redford D, Morgan S: Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin by pulse oximetry: a human volunteer study. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 892–7 CrossRef
e30.Roth D, Herkner H, Schreiber W, et al.: Accuracy of noninvasive multiwave pulse oximetry compared with carboxyhemoglobin from blood gas analysis in unselected emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med 2011; 58: 74–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e31.Touger M, Birnbaum A, Wang J, Chou K, Pearson D, Bijur P: Performance of the RAD-57 pulse CO-oximeter compared with standard laboratory carboxyhemoglobin measurement. Ann Emerg Med 2010; 56: 382–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
e32.Bickler MP, Rhodes LJ: Accuracy of detection of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in human and bovine blood with an inexpensive, pocket-size infrared scanner. PLOS ONE 2018; 13: e0193891 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e33.Touger M, Gallagher EJ, Tyrell J: Relationship between venous and arterial carboxyhemoglobin levels in patients with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med 1995; 25: 481–3 CrossRef
e34.Lopez DM, Weingarten-Arams JS, Singer LP, Conway EE: Relationship between arterial, mixed venous, and internal jugular carboxyhemoglobin concentrations at low, medium, and high concentrations in a piglet model of carbon monoxide toxicity. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1998–2001 CrossRef
e35.Goldbaum LR, Orellano T, Dergal E: Mechanism of the toxic action of carbon monoxide. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1976; 6: 372–6 MEDLINE
e36.Baud FJ: Akute Vergiftungen mit Kohlenmonoxid und Zyaniden. Ther Umsch 2009; 66: 387–97 CrossRef MEDLINE
e37.Kaiser G, Schaper A: Akute Kohlenmonoxidvergiftung. Notf Rettungsmedizin 2012; 15: 429–35.
e38.Pace R, Bon Homme M, Hoffman RS, Lugassy D: Effects of hydroxocobalamin on carboxyhemoglobin measured under physiologic and pathologic conditions. Clin Toxicol Phila Pa 2014; 52: 647–50 CrossRef MEDLINE
e39.Baud F: Clarifications regarding interference of hydroxocobalamin with carboxyhemoglobin measurements in victims of smoke inhalation. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 50: 625–6; author reply 626 CrossRef MEDLINE
e40.Lee J, Mukai D, Kreuter K, Mahon S, Tromberg B, Brenner M: Potential interference by hydroxocobalamin on cooximetry hemoglobin measurements during cyanide and smoke inhalation treatments. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 49: 802–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e41. Livshits Z, Lugassy DM, Shawn LK, Hoffman RS: Falsely low carboxyhemoglobin level after hydroxocobalamin therapy. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1270–1 CrossRef MEDLINE
e42.Roderique JD, Josef CS, Newcomb AH, Reynolds PS, Somera LG, Spiess BD: Preclinical evaluation of injectable reduced hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to acute carbon monoxide poisoning. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015; 79(4 Suppl 2): S116–20 MEDLINE PubMed Central
e43.Moallem SA, Mohamadpour AH, Abnous K, et al.: Erythropoietin in the treatment of carbon monoxide neurotoxicity in rat. Food Chem Toxicol 2015; 86: 56–64 CrossRef MEDLINE
e44.Rezaee MA, Mohammadpour AH, Imenshahidi M, et al.: Protective effect of erythropoietin on myocardial apoptosis in rats exposed to carbon monoxide. Life Sci 2016; 148: 118–24 CrossRef MEDLINE
e45.Hashemzaei M, Barani AK, Iranshahi M, et al.: Effects of resveratrol on carbon monoxide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016; 46: 110–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e46.Azarov I, Wang L, Rose JJ, et al.: Five-coordinate H64Q neuroglobin as a ligand-trap antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning. Sci Transl Med 2016; 8: 368ra173.
e47.Weaver LK, Howe S, Hopkins R, Chan KJ: Carboxyhemoglobin half-life in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients treated with 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Chest 2000; 117: 801–8 CrossRef
e48.Pace N, Strajman E, Walker EL: Acceleration of carbon monoxide elimination in man by high pressure oxygen. Science 1950; 111: 652–4 CrossRef
e49.Prockop LD, Chichkova RI: Carbon monoxide intoxication: an updated review. J Neurol Sci 2007; 262: 122–30 CrossRef MEDLINE
e50.Thom SR: Antagonism of carbon monoxide-mediated brain lipid peroxidation by hyperbaric oxygen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1990; 105: 340–4 CrossRef
e51. Jurič DM, Šuput D, Brvar M: Hyperbaric oxygen preserves neurotrophic activity of carbon monoxide-exposed astrocytes. Toxicol Lett 2016; 253: 1–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e52.Thom SR, Bhopale VM, Fisher D: Hyperbaric oxygen reduces delayed immune-mediated neuropathology in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 213: 152–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e53.Garrabou G, Inoriza JM, Morén C, et al.: Mitochondrial injury in human acute carbon monoxide poisoning: the effect of oxygen treatment. J Environ Sci Health Part C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2011; 29: 32–51 CrossRef MEDLINE
e54.Meirovithz E, Sonn J, Mayevsky A: Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on brain hemodynamics, hemoglobin oxygenation and mitochondrial NADH. Brain Res Rev 2007; 54: 294–304 CrossRef MEDLINE
e55.Liu WC, Yang SN, Wu CWJ, Chen LW, Chan JYH: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates carbon monoxide poisoning-induced delayed memory impairment by preserving brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis. Crit Care Med 2016; 44: e25–39 CrossRef MEDLINE
e56.Xue L, Wang WL, Li Y, et al.: Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Undersea Hyperb Med 2017; 44: 121–31 CrossRef MEDLINE
e57.Mutluoglu M, Metin S, Arziman I, Uzun G, Yildiz S: The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning in Europe. Undersea Hyperb Med 2016; 43: 49–56 MEDLINE
e58. Bassler D, Briel M, Montori VM, et al.: Stopping randomized trials early for benefit and estimation of treatment effects: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis. JAMA 2010; 303: 1180–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
e59.Hill EP, Hill JR, Power GG, Longo LD: Carbon monoxide exchanges between the human fetus and mother: a mathematical model. Am J Physiol 1977; 232: H311–23 MEDLINE
e60.Longo LD, Hill EP: Carbon monoxide uptake and elimination in fetal and maternal sheep. Am J Physiol 1977; 232: H324–30 MEDLINE
e61.Smith KA, Bryce S: Trauma in the pregnant patient: an evidence-based approach to management. Emerg Med Pract 2013; 15: 1–18.
e62.Roderique EJD, Gebre-Giorgis AA, Stewart DH, Feldman MJ, Pozez AL: Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient. A literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case. J Burn Care Res 2012; 33: 624–33 CrossRef MEDLINE
e63.Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes – gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis. Diagnose T58 (ICD). Tabelle: Sterbefälle. www.gbe-bund.de/ (last accessed on 21 September 2018).