DÄ internationalArchive1-2/2019The management of pilonidal sinus

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The management of pilonidal sinus

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116(1-2): 12-21; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0012

Iesalnieks, I; Ommer, A

LNSLNS
1.
Ommer A, Berg E, Breitkopf C, et al.: S3-Leitlinie: Sinus pilonidalis. Coloproctology 2014; 36: 272–322 CrossRef
2.
Steele SR, Perry WB, Mills S, Buie WD: Practice parameters for the management of pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2013; 56: 1021–7 CrossRef
3.
Segre D, Pozzo M, Perinotti R, Roche B, Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery: The treatment of pilonidal disease: guidelines of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR). Tech Coloproctol 2015; 19: 607–13 CrossRef
4.
Al-Khamis A, McCallum I , King PM, Bruce J: Healing by primary versus secondary intention after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011: CD006213.
5.
Enriquez-Navascues JM, Emparanza JI, Alkorta M, Placer C: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing different techniques with primary closure for chronic pilonidal sinus. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18: 863–72 CrossRef
6.
Plewig G, Kligman AM: In: Acne. Morphogenesis and treatment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1975; 192–3.
7.
Bascom J: Pilonidal disease: origin from follicles of hairs and results of follicle removal as treatment. Surgery 1980; 87: 567–72.
8.
Karydakis GE: Easy and successful treatment of pilonidal sinus after explanation of its causative process. Aust N Z J Surg 1992; 62: 385–9 CrossRef
9.
Bosche F, Luedi MM, van der Zypen D, Moersdorf P, Krapohl B, Doll D: The hair in the sinus: sharp-ended rootless head hair fragments can be found in large amounts in pilonidal sinus nests. World J Surg 2018; 42: 567–73 CrossRef
10.
Brearley R: Pilonidal sinus; a new theory of origin. Br J Surg 1955; 43: 62–8 CrossRef
11.
Féré: Bull des la Soc Anat de Paris. 4 Serie. 1878: 3; 309.
12.
Patey DH, Scarff RW: Pathology of postanal pilonidal sinus; its bearing on treatment. Lancet 1946; 2: 484–6 CrossRef
13.
Guner A, Boz A, Ozkan OF, Ileli O, Kece C, Reis E: Limberg flap versus bascom cleft lift techniques for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus: prospective, randomized trial. World J Surg 2013; 37: 2074–80 CrossRef
14.
Doll D, Matevossian E, Hoenemann C, Hoffmann S: Incision and drainage preceding definite surgery achieves lower 20-year long-term recurrence rate in 583 primary pilonidal sinus surgery patients. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2013; 11: 60–4 CrossRef
15.
Jensen SL, Harling H: Prognosis after simple incision and drainage for a first-episode acute pilonidal abscess. Br J Surg 1988; 75: 60–1 CrossRef
16.
Lasithiotakis K, Aghahoseini A, Volanaki D, Peter M, Alexander D: Aspiration for acute pilonidal abscess-a cohort study. J Surg Res 2018; 223: 123–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
17.
Lord PH, Millar DM: Pilonidal Sinus: A Simple Treatment. Br J Surg 1965; 52: 298–300 CrossRef
18.
Gips M, Melki Y, Salem L, Weil R, Sulkes J: Minimal surgery for pilonidal disease using trephines: description of a new technique and long-term outcomes in 1,358 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 1656–62 CrossRef MEDLINE
19.
Senapati A, Cripps NP, Thompson MR: Bascom‘s operation in the day-surgical management of symptomatic pilonidal sinus. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 1067–70 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.
Colov EP, Bertelsen CA: Short convalescence and minimal pain after out-patient Bascom‘s pit-pick operation. Dan Med Bull 2011; 58: A4348 MEDLINE
21.
Iesalnieks I, Deimel S, Schlitt HJ: “Pit picking“ surgery for patients with pilonidal disease: mid-term results and risk factors. Chirurg 2015; 86: 482–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.
Soll C, Dindo D, Steinemann D, Hauffe T, Clavien PA, Hahnloser D: Sinusectomy for primary pilonidal sinus: less is more. Surgery 2012; 150: 996–1001 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.
Dessily M, Charara F, Ralea S, Allé JL: Pilonidal sinus destruction with a radial laser probe: technique and first Belgian experience. Acta Chir Belg 2017; 117: 164–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
24.
Milone M, Fernandez LM, Musella M, Milone F: Safety and efficacy of minimally invasive video-assisted ablation of pilonidal sinus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg 2016; 151: 547–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.
Dogru O, Camci C, Aygen E, Girgin M, Topuz O: Pilonidal sinus treated with crystallized phenol: an eight-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 1934–8 CrossRef
26.
Iesalnieks I, Ommer A, Petersen S, Doll D, Herold A: German national guideline on the management of pilonidal disease. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2016; 401: 599–609 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.
Kelati A, Lagrange S, Le Duff F, et al: Laser hair removal after surgery versus surgery alone for the treatment of pilonidal cysts: a retrospective case-control study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018; 32: 2031– CrossRef MEDLINE
28.
Iesalnieks I, Deimel S, Schlitt HJ: Karydakis flap for recurrent pilonidal disease. World J Surg 2013; 37: 1115–20 CrossRef MEDLINE
29.
McCallum I, King PM, Bruce J: Healing by primary versus secondary intention after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007: CD006213 CrossRef
30.
Karydakis GE: New approach to the problem of pilonidal sinus. Lancet 1973; 2: 1414–5 CrossRef
31.
Kitchen PR: Pilonidal sinus: experience with the Karydakis flap. Br J Surg 1996; 83: 1452–5 CrossRef
32.
Bascom J, Bascom T: Utility of the cleft lift procedure in refractory pilonidal disease. Am J Surg 2007; 193: 606–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.
Cihan A, Ucan BH, Comert M, Cesur A, Cakmak GK, Tascilar O: Superiority of asymmetric modified Limberg flap for surgical treatment of pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2006; 49: 244–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.
Nordon IM, Senapati A, Cripps NP: A prospective randomized controlled trial of simple Bascom‘s technique versus Bascom‘s cleft closure for the treatment of chronic pilonidal disease. Am J Surg 2009; 197: 189–92 CrossRef MEDLINE
35.
Petersen S, Koch R, Stelzner S, Wendlandt TP, Ludwig K: Primary closure techniques in chronic pilonidal sinus: a survey of the results of different surgical approaches. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45: 1458–67 CrossRef
36.
Keshvari A, Keramati MR, Fazeli MS, Kazemeini A, Meysamie A, Nouritaromlou MK: Karydakis flap versus excision-only technique in pilonidal disease. J Surg Res 2015; 198: 260–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
37.
Jamal A, Shamim M, Hashmi F, Qureshi MI: Open excision with secondary healing versus rhomboid excision with Limberg transposition flap in the management of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. J Pak Med Assoc 2009; 59: 157–60 MEDLINE
38.
Bessa SS: Comparison of short-term results between the modified karydakis flap and the modified limberg flap in the management of pilonidal sinus disease:a randomized controlled study. Dis Colon Rectum 2013; 56: 491–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
39.
Petersen S, Wietelmann K, Evers T, Hüser N, Matevossian E, Doll D: Long-term effects of postoperative razor epilation in pilonidal sinus disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52: 131–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
40.
Pronk AA, Eppink L, Smakman N, Furnee EJB:The effect of hair removal after surgery for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: a systematic review of the literature. Tech Coloproctol 2018; 22: 7–14 CrossRef MEDLINE
e1.
Webb PM, Wysocki AP: Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage? Tech Coloproctol 2011; 15: 179–83 CrossRef MEDLINE
e2.
Maghsoudi H, Nezami N: Ambulatory treatment of chronic pilonidal sinuses with lateral incision and primary suture. Can J Surg 2011; 54: 78–82 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e3.
Pappas AF, Christodoulou DK: A new minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal sinus disease with the use of a diode laser: a prospective large series of patients. Colorectal Dis 2018; 20: O207-O214 CrossRef MEDLINE
e4.
Kayaalp C, Aydin C: Review of phenol treatment in sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Tech Coloproctol 2009; 13: 189–93 CrossRef MEDLINE
e5.
Holmebakk T, Nesbakken A: Surgery for pilonidal disease. Scand J Surg 2005; 94: 43–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e6.
Baier PK, Baumgartner U: Therapy of the pilonidal sinus--primary wound closure or open wound after excision. Zentralbl Chir 2002; 127: 310–4 MEDLINE
e7.
Arslan K, Said Kokcam S: Which flap method should be preferred for the treatment of pilonidal sinus? A prospective randomized study. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18: 29–37 CrossRef MEDLINE
e8.
Gendy AS, Glick RD: A comparison of the cleft lift procedure vs wide excision and packing for the treatment of pilonidal disease in adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 2011; 46: 1256–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.
Tezel E: Cleft lift procedure with excision of pits for extensive sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Colorectal Dis 2006; 8: 72 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.
Karaca T, Yoldas O: Comparison of short-term results of modified Karydakis flap and modified Limberg flap for pilonidal sinus surgery. Int J Surg 2012; 10: 601–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e11.
Demircan F, Akbulut S, Yavuz R, Agtas H, Karabulut K, Yagmur Y: The effect of laser epilation on recurrence and satisfaction in patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015; 8: 2929–33 MEDLINE PubMed Central
München Klinik Bogenhausen: Prof. Dr. med. Igors Iesalnieks
End- und Dickdarm-Zentrum Essen:
Dr. med. Andreas Ommer
1. Ommer A, Berg E, Breitkopf C, et al.: S3-Leitlinie: Sinus pilonidalis. Coloproctology 2014; 36: 272–322 CrossRef
2.Steele SR, Perry WB, Mills S, Buie WD: Practice parameters for the management of pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2013; 56: 1021–7 CrossRef
3.Segre D, Pozzo M, Perinotti R, Roche B, Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery: The treatment of pilonidal disease: guidelines of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR). Tech Coloproctol 2015; 19: 607–13 CrossRef
4.Al-Khamis A, McCallum I , King PM, Bruce J: Healing by primary versus secondary intention after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011: CD006213.
5. Enriquez-Navascues JM, Emparanza JI, Alkorta M, Placer C: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing different techniques with primary closure for chronic pilonidal sinus. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18: 863–72 CrossRef
6.Plewig G, Kligman AM: In: Acne. Morphogenesis and treatment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1975; 192–3.
7.Bascom J: Pilonidal disease: origin from follicles of hairs and results of follicle removal as treatment. Surgery 1980; 87: 567–72.
8.Karydakis GE: Easy and successful treatment of pilonidal sinus after explanation of its causative process. Aust N Z J Surg 1992; 62: 385–9 CrossRef
9.Bosche F, Luedi MM, van der Zypen D, Moersdorf P, Krapohl B, Doll D: The hair in the sinus: sharp-ended rootless head hair fragments can be found in large amounts in pilonidal sinus nests. World J Surg 2018; 42: 567–73 CrossRef
10.Brearley R: Pilonidal sinus; a new theory of origin. Br J Surg 1955; 43: 62–8 CrossRef
11.Féré: Bull des la Soc Anat de Paris. 4 Serie. 1878: 3; 309.
12.Patey DH, Scarff RW: Pathology of postanal pilonidal sinus; its bearing on treatment. Lancet 1946; 2: 484–6 CrossRef
13.Guner A, Boz A, Ozkan OF, Ileli O, Kece C, Reis E: Limberg flap versus bascom cleft lift techniques for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus: prospective, randomized trial. World J Surg 2013; 37: 2074–80 CrossRef
14.Doll D, Matevossian E, Hoenemann C, Hoffmann S: Incision and drainage preceding definite surgery achieves lower 20-year long-term recurrence rate in 583 primary pilonidal sinus surgery patients. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2013; 11: 60–4 CrossRef
15.Jensen SL, Harling H: Prognosis after simple incision and drainage for a first-episode acute pilonidal abscess. Br J Surg 1988; 75: 60–1 CrossRef
16.Lasithiotakis K, Aghahoseini A, Volanaki D, Peter M, Alexander D: Aspiration for acute pilonidal abscess-a cohort study. J Surg Res 2018; 223: 123–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
17.Lord PH, Millar DM: Pilonidal Sinus: A Simple Treatment. Br J Surg 1965; 52: 298–300 CrossRef
18.Gips M, Melki Y, Salem L, Weil R, Sulkes J: Minimal surgery for pilonidal disease using trephines: description of a new technique and long-term outcomes in 1,358 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 1656–62 CrossRef MEDLINE
19.Senapati A, Cripps NP, Thompson MR: Bascom‘s operation in the day-surgical management of symptomatic pilonidal sinus. Br J Surg 2000; 87: 1067–70 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.Colov EP, Bertelsen CA: Short convalescence and minimal pain after out-patient Bascom‘s pit-pick operation. Dan Med Bull 2011; 58: A4348 MEDLINE
21.Iesalnieks I, Deimel S, Schlitt HJ: “Pit picking“ surgery for patients with pilonidal disease: mid-term results and risk factors. Chirurg 2015; 86: 482–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.Soll C, Dindo D, Steinemann D, Hauffe T, Clavien PA, Hahnloser D: Sinusectomy for primary pilonidal sinus: less is more. Surgery 2012; 150: 996–1001 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.Dessily M, Charara F, Ralea S, Allé JL: Pilonidal sinus destruction with a radial laser probe: technique and first Belgian experience. Acta Chir Belg 2017; 117: 164–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
24.Milone M, Fernandez LM, Musella M, Milone F: Safety and efficacy of minimally invasive video-assisted ablation of pilonidal sinus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Surg 2016; 151: 547–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Dogru O, Camci C, Aygen E, Girgin M, Topuz O: Pilonidal sinus treated with crystallized phenol: an eight-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 1934–8 CrossRef
26.Iesalnieks I, Ommer A, Petersen S, Doll D, Herold A: German national guideline on the management of pilonidal disease. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2016; 401: 599–609 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.Kelati A, Lagrange S, Le Duff F, et al: Laser hair removal after surgery versus surgery alone for the treatment of pilonidal cysts: a retrospective case-control study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018; 32: 2031– CrossRef MEDLINE
28.Iesalnieks I, Deimel S, Schlitt HJ: Karydakis flap for recurrent pilonidal disease. World J Surg 2013; 37: 1115–20 CrossRef MEDLINE
29.McCallum I, King PM, Bruce J: Healing by primary versus secondary intention after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007: CD006213 CrossRef
30.Karydakis GE: New approach to the problem of pilonidal sinus. Lancet 1973; 2: 1414–5 CrossRef
31.Kitchen PR: Pilonidal sinus: experience with the Karydakis flap. Br J Surg 1996; 83: 1452–5 CrossRef
32.Bascom J, Bascom T: Utility of the cleft lift procedure in refractory pilonidal disease. Am J Surg 2007; 193: 606–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.Cihan A, Ucan BH, Comert M, Cesur A, Cakmak GK, Tascilar O: Superiority of asymmetric modified Limberg flap for surgical treatment of pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2006; 49: 244–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.Nordon IM, Senapati A, Cripps NP: A prospective randomized controlled trial of simple Bascom‘s technique versus Bascom‘s cleft closure for the treatment of chronic pilonidal disease. Am J Surg 2009; 197: 189–92 CrossRef MEDLINE
35.Petersen S, Koch R, Stelzner S, Wendlandt TP, Ludwig K: Primary closure techniques in chronic pilonidal sinus: a survey of the results of different surgical approaches. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45: 1458–67 CrossRef
36.Keshvari A, Keramati MR, Fazeli MS, Kazemeini A, Meysamie A, Nouritaromlou MK: Karydakis flap versus excision-only technique in pilonidal disease. J Surg Res 2015; 198: 260–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
37.Jamal A, Shamim M, Hashmi F, Qureshi MI: Open excision with secondary healing versus rhomboid excision with Limberg transposition flap in the management of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. J Pak Med Assoc 2009; 59: 157–60 MEDLINE
38.Bessa SS: Comparison of short-term results between the modified karydakis flap and the modified limberg flap in the management of pilonidal sinus disease:a randomized controlled study. Dis Colon Rectum 2013; 56: 491–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
39.Petersen S, Wietelmann K, Evers T, Hüser N, Matevossian E, Doll D: Long-term effects of postoperative razor epilation in pilonidal sinus disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52: 131–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
40.Pronk AA, Eppink L, Smakman N, Furnee EJB:The effect of hair removal after surgery for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: a systematic review of the literature. Tech Coloproctol 2018; 22: 7–14 CrossRef MEDLINE
e1.Webb PM, Wysocki AP: Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage? Tech Coloproctol 2011; 15: 179–83 CrossRef MEDLINE
e2.Maghsoudi H, Nezami N: Ambulatory treatment of chronic pilonidal sinuses with lateral incision and primary suture. Can J Surg 2011; 54: 78–82 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e3.Pappas AF, Christodoulou DK: A new minimally invasive treatment of pilonidal sinus disease with the use of a diode laser: a prospective large series of patients. Colorectal Dis 2018; 20: O207-O214 CrossRef MEDLINE
e4.Kayaalp C, Aydin C: Review of phenol treatment in sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Tech Coloproctol 2009; 13: 189–93 CrossRef MEDLINE
e5.Holmebakk T, Nesbakken A: Surgery for pilonidal disease. Scand J Surg 2005; 94: 43–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e6.Baier PK, Baumgartner U: Therapy of the pilonidal sinus--primary wound closure or open wound after excision. Zentralbl Chir 2002; 127: 310–4 MEDLINE
e7.Arslan K, Said Kokcam S: Which flap method should be preferred for the treatment of pilonidal sinus? A prospective randomized study. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18: 29–37 CrossRef MEDLINE
e8.Gendy AS, Glick RD: A comparison of the cleft lift procedure vs wide excision and packing for the treatment of pilonidal disease in adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 2011; 46: 1256–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.Tezel E: Cleft lift procedure with excision of pits for extensive sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Colorectal Dis 2006; 8: 72 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.Karaca T, Yoldas O: Comparison of short-term results of modified Karydakis flap and modified Limberg flap for pilonidal sinus surgery. Int J Surg 2012; 10: 601–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
e11.Demircan F, Akbulut S, Yavuz R, Agtas H, Karabulut K, Yagmur Y: The effect of laser epilation on recurrence and satisfaction in patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015; 8: 2929–33 MEDLINE PubMed Central