DÄ internationalArchive38/2019Cognitive Deficits Following Intensive Care

Review article

Cognitive Deficits Following Intensive Care

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 627-34. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0627

Kohler, J; Borchers, F; Endres, M; Weiss, B; Spies, C; Emmrich, J V

Background: Illnesses that necessitate intensive care can impair cognitive function severely over the long term, leaving patients less able to cope with the demands of everyday living and markedly lowering their quality of life. There has not yet been any comprehensive study of the cognitive sequelae of critical illness among non-surgical patients treated in intensive care. The purpose of this review is to present the available study findings on cognitive deficits in such patients, with particular attention to prevalence, types of deficit, clinical course, risk factors, prevention, and treatment.

Methods: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in MEDLINE.

Results: The literature search yielded 3360 hits, among which there were 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. 17–78% of patients had cognitive deficits after discharge from the intensive care unit; most had never had a cognitive deficit before. Cognitive impairment often persisted for up to several years after discharge (0.5 to 9 years) and tended to improve over time. The only definite risk factor is delirium.

Conclusion: Cognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of the treatment of non-surgical patients in intensive care units. It is a serious problem for the affected persons and an increasingly important socio-economic problem as well. The effective management of delirium is very important. General conclusions are hard to draw from the available data because of heterogeneous study designs, varying methods of measurement, and differences among patient cohorts. Further studies are needed so that study designs and clinical testing procedures can be standardized and effective measures for prevention and treatment can be identified.

LNSLNS

The term “post-intensive care syndrome” (PICS) refers to long-term functional impairment arising after treatment in an intensive care unit. The syndrome is characterized primarily by bodily impairment and by limitations of cognitive functional ability and mental health (1).

As a long-term phenomenon, PICS differs from delirium, an acute organic dysfunction of the brain that may be reversible once its cause has been eliminated. Cognitive deficits after critical illness have a negative effect on competence in everyday life and on the quality of life (2). The patient’s reintegration into the workplace, productivity at work, and financial income are particularly affected (3). The stress level on relatives caring for the patient is high (4). Further major socioeconomic consequences of PICS include the costs of therapy, nursing care, and rehospitalizations (58).

The long-term effects of treatment in an intensive care unit on cognitive function have only recently become a major topic for research in intensive care medicine. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a current focus of study [9–13], but cognitive deficits can also arise in patients treated in intensive care units who have not undergone surgery.

Reviews of this topic to date have concerned mixed cohorts containing both surgical and non-surgical patients. This review is focused on studies of cognitive deficits arising exclusively in patients who were treated in intensive care units without having undergone surgery. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of cognitive deficits in such patients; the secondary objective is to gain an overview of the nature, course, and severity of the cognitive deficits, as well as of risk factors and measures for prevention and treatment.

The results are relevant to all persons who participate in the care of patients with cognitive dysfunction or with a severe illness necessitating intensive care. Intensive care physicians, nurses, and therapists can be sensitized to the long-term cognitive effects of the treatment they provide. They must be able to recognize risk factors and initiate preventive measures. If an affected patient presents with cognitive difficulties to a general practitioner’s office or other outpatient facility, a correct diagnosis will have to be made. Finally, knowledge about PICS can also help the patient’s relatives put the problem in the proper context so that they can give the patient optimal support (4).

Method

Search strategy

We conducted a selective literature search in the MEDLINE/PubMed database for articles indexed up to and including 25 May 2019. The search strategy was based on several synonyms for “critical illness” and “cognitive dysfunction,” as follows: “(cognitive dysfunction OR cognitive impairment OR cognitive sequelae OR cognitive decline OR cognitive disability) AND (critical illness OR ICU OR intensive care).” Additionally, we carried out an analogous search in the reference lists of studies and reviews chosen by expert opinion.

Selection of studies

One of the authors (JK) screened all search hits by title and abstract in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two authors (JK, JVE) then selected studies meeting the inclusion criteria on the basis of the full texts.

The inclusion criteria were as follows:

  • original studies on the prevalence of cognitive deficits in non-surgical patients treated in an intensive care unit, as determined by a standardized testing procedure
  • publication in either English or German
  • patients over 18 years old

Studies were excluded if the patient cohort included patients of the following types:

  • postoperative/surgical patients
  • patients whose indication for treatment was trauma
  • patients with cardiac arrest and/or status post cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • patients with primary neurological disease.

Data extraction and analysis

Three of the authors (JK, JVE, FB) established the categories for data extraction by expert opinion and divided these categories into three sets; then each of these three authors extracted data from all studies in one set of categories and subsequently checked over the data extraction performed by the other two authors in the remaining categories.

Unclear points and controversial questions were discussed and settled by all authors by common agreement, with all authors participating on equal terms. We did not carry out a meta-analysis, as this would probably have been unhelpful in view of the heterogeneity of the study findings. Instead, we chose to represent the extracted data in descriptive terms.

Results

The literature search in the database yielded 3360 hits; further screening by titles and abstracts left 233 articles, whose full texts were then read for suitability. The analogous search in the reference lists yielded a single study on sepsis patients (14). A total of 14 studies were included in the analysis (eFigure).

PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
eFigure
PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)

Diagnoses on admission and patient population

The diagnoses on admission to the intensive care unit included the following: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 9 studies; sepsis, 3 studies; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one study. A further study concerned a mixed patient population with ARDS, septic shock, or cardiogenic shock (15). The mean age of the patients in the studies ranged from 31 to 76.7 years (14, 16). The sex distribution was the same across studies. In 13 studies, patients were artificially ventilated. The APACHE-II scores (a measure of the severity of disease) ranged from 18.1 to 23.5 (2, 17–20).

Epidemiology

17–78% of patients discharged from an intensive care unit sustained long-term cognitive deficits (Table 1). Baseline data on cognitive performance ability were only obtained in a single study. Among survivors of severe sepsis, 6.1% had already had relevant cognitive deficits before admission to the intensive care unit; after discharge, 16.7% did (14).

Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)
Table 1
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)

In two studies, demographically matched control groups were used; in one of them, the matched controls were not hospitalized, while, in the other, they were hospitalized, but not treated in an intensive care unit (14, 21). Iwashyna et al. showed that treatment in an intensive care unit for sepsis increased the frequency of moderate to severe cognitive dysfunction compared to the control group (14). Ambrosino et al. compared the prevalence of cognitive deficits in patients with exacerbated COPD with their prevalence in the control group: the resulting figures were 39% vs. 3% on discharge, 8% vs. 5% at 3 months, and 17% vs. 5% at 6 months [21]).

In seven studies, patients were tested at multiple time points (Table 1, Figure) (2, 15, 2024). A trend toward improvement compared to the condition on discharge was seen within the first year, but 17–63% of the patients were still cognitively impaired on their last follow-up 0.25 to 2 years after discharge. These studies yielded no data on the prevalence of the different degrees of severity of cognitive dysfunction.

Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).
Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).
Figure
Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).

Risk factors and treatment approaches

Hopkins et al. described a correlation between the duration of hypoxemia (oxygen saturation <90%) and the severity of cognitive deficits at the time of discharge in patients who were hospitalized in intensive care units because of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2, 17). Hyperglycemia (maximal blood glucose >153.5 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (mean blood glucose <108 mg/dL), and highly variable blood glucose values were likewise associated with a higher probability of the development of long-term cognitive deficits. The duration of treatment in the intensive care unit was relevant as well (19).

Multiple studies have concerned potential therapeutic approaches during intensive care, e.g., dietary regimens (restricted vs. full) (23) or statin administration (24). These treatments have not been found to lower the incidence of cognitive dysfunction.

Study design

Most of the included studies were prospective studies carried out in single centers (eTable 1). The studies were performed over a 28-year period from 1985 to 2013. The periods of follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 9 years (21, 25). The most commonly used time point for testing was one year after discharge from intensive care.

Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
eTable 1
Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1
eTable 2
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1

Four studies employed time points for testing that were two years or more after the discharge from intensive care (2, 16, 25, 26); one of these studies had a prospective design (2). In six of the 14 studies (42.9%), patients were included in the study upon admission to the intensive care unit. In the remaining 8 studies, patients were included either upon discharge or at their first follow-up.

Patients who were already cognitively impaired before undergoing intensive care were excluded from five studies. Reported in-hospital mortality varied widely, from 10.9% (24) to 43.9% (20), even after correction for censored patients, i.e., those who declined or were lost to further follow-up (Table 2).

Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up
Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up
Table 2
Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up

Testing procedures used, and affected cognitive domains

A wide variety of testing procedures were used to study a similarly wide variety of cognitive domains, and varying definitions of cognitive dysfunction were applied in different studies (eTable 1, Figure). Four studies (28.6%) exclusively used cognitive screening instruments (e.g., the MMSE), questionnaires, or structured interviews (e.g., TICS, IQCODE). Ten studies (71.4%) employed more extensive neuropsychological testing batteries. There was no correlation between the type of cognitive testing used (screening vs. neuropsychological test battery) and the reported prevalence of cognitive impairment after intensive care.

Multiple cognitive domains were tested in all studies. The most commonly tested domains were memory, executive function, perception, attention, motor function, and speech comprehension. Deficits commonly affected multiple domains, with variation in the domains that were affected.

Discussion

These findings show that cognitive deficits are common in persons who have undergone treatment in intensive care units (without surgery). 17–78% of the patients were cognitively impaired after intensive care; in general, the impairments were new, they were most severe immediately after discharge, and they lasted a long time (at least 0.5 to 9 years).

The patients in this study did not differ to any significant extent from patients in other studies with mixed cohorts (both surgical and non-surgical patients) with respect to the prevalence and course of cognitive dysfunction (2740, e1e7) (eTable 3, eTable 4). Cognitive impairment increases after intensive care, compared either to baseline or to a control group, in mixed patient cohorts just as in exclusively non-surgical ones (31, 32, 34, 39). Cognitive impairment in mixed patient cohorts is usually mild or moderate (27, 28, 30, 32, 36, 38, e1). In studies with exclusively non-surgically treated patients, the prevalence of individual grades of cognitive impairment was not reported.

Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
eTable 3
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3
eTable 4
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3

As an illustration, the prospective BRAIN-ICU cohort study revealed, in a mixed patient population with 18% surgical patients, an increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment from 6% at baseline to 40% (for a test result 1.5 standard deviations [SD] below the reference mean, comparable to the effect of moderate traumatic brain injury) and 26% (for a test result 2 SD below the reference mean, comparable to mild Alzheimer dementia) three months after discharge. The corresponding figures at one year were 34% and 24% (e1).

This is a problem of considerable socioeconomic importance, as persons with cognitive deficits often face long-lasting impairments in everyday competence and in the quality of life.

Pathogenesis

Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies have provided evidence of diffuse brain damage. There are global and local patterns of atrophy, as well as cortical and subcortical lesions, particularly in the corpus callosum, the hippocampus, and the basal ganglia (7, e8, e9). Delirium has also been linked to abnormalities of brain structure. It may be that the pathogenetic mechanism of acute brain dysfunction goes on to produce chronic structural changes that impair cognition over the long term (e10).

This pathogenetic mechanism seems to be of a multifactorial nature, with contributory roles played by metabolic factors (such as hyper- and hypoglycemia), hemodynamic factors (such as hypotension and hypoxemia), inflammation, and toxic influences (from sedative, analgesic, and anticholinergic drugs, among others) (7, 19, 33, 40, e3, e8, e9, e11e13). Some of these factors may generate and sustain a systemic inflammatory reaction. It is thought that neuro-inflammatory processes induced by spreading of the inflammatory reaction across the blood-brain barrier cause neuronal injury (e12).

Risk factors for cognitive deficts after intensive care

Delirium is the best-studied risk factor for long-term cognitive deficits after intensive care, in both non-surgical and mixed surgical/non-surgical patient cohorts. Denke et al. showed an association between the duration of delirium and impaired cognitive ability in a cohort of ARDS patients (e14). Similarly, the BRAIN-ICU study revealed that a longer duration of delirium was independently associated with poorer cognitive test results at 3 and 12 months in a mixed patient cohort (e1).

It has not yet been conclusively determined whether old age is an independent risk factor (8). The patient cohorts in the studies considered in this review all contained patients of all age groups, but no age-dependent increase was found in the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care. Nor was age found to have a significant effect in the BRAIN-ICU study (e1). The results of other studies with mixed patient cohorts appear to support the hypothesis of a higher risk at older ages, but long-term cognitive deficits can clearly arise in patients of any age, including children (e15e17).

Other risk factors, including hypo- and hyperglycemia, have been confirmed in studies with mixed patient cohorts (e18). As for hypoxemia, the evidence is mixed (e11). The severity of illness, as measured by the APACHE-II score, seems to play a lesser role (e9). In summary, the current state of the evidence is weak. Only delirium can now be considered a clearly established risk factor.

The prevention of cognitive dysfunction after intensive care

The effective prevention and treatment of delirium might, therefore, be essential for the prevention of long-term deficits. Delirium in intensive care is the target of treatment strategies such as the so-called ABCDEF bundle (e19, e20), and it counts as one of ten quality indicators in intensive care medicine (e21, e22) (Box). Further recommendations include early mobilization, physiotherapy, and other early rehabilitative measures, as well as music therapy, the creation of individual rehabilitation plans, and the keeping of an intensive-care diary (e9, e13, e17, e23e25).

The management of delirium
The management of delirium
Box
The management of delirium

Approaches to treatment

There have been hardly any studies of specific treatments to date (e26). The RETURN study showed that a focused, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program consisting of cognitive stimulation, physiotherapy, and ergotherapy improved the cognitive ability of the intervention group compared to a control group that underwent non-protocol-based rehabilitation (e27).

Other types of combined therapy with intensified cognitive components are also promising, but only a few have been evaluated to date (e7, e8, e28, e29). It seems advisable to start specific treatment as early as possible, even while the patient is still in the intensive care unit (e26, e30, e31).

Clinical implications

Although many aspects remain unclear, a number of recommendations can already be made for clinical practice (e9):

  • Non-pharmacological treatment approaches play the most important role in the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment.
  • Structured, multimodal, and quality-indicator-oriented therapeutic concepts are helpful for the provision of patient-specific treatment and for the minimization of risk factors.
  • The effective management of delirium is very important.
  • Patients should be followed over the long term in outpatient and inpatient structures with special interdisciplinary competence.
  • All professionals who care for the affected patients and their relatives in a variety of contexts should provide information about the long-term risk of cognitive impairment after intensive care, thereby increasing understanding among the persons concerned and helping them achieve their objectives and priorities.

Limitations

We systematically searched only one database, and we limited the analysis to publications in English or German. The wide variation in prevalence figures can be attributed in part to the heterogeneity of patient cohorts, the non-uniform testing procedures, and the differing time points of evaluation (e9, e12). In view of these differences, no meta-analysis could be performed.

Many of the studies provided less than full information. In most of them, no baseline data were obtained on the patients’ cognitive status before the .initiation of intensive care; these studies are thus uninformative with respect to a central question, namely, whether the observed cognitive deficits arose de novo or as a worsening of pre-existing deficits. Half of the studies provided no data on mortality in the intensive care unit. Case numbers were often low, and patients were often enrolled in the studies only after their discharge from intensive care. This late time point of patient inclusion, along with the high rates of loss to follow-up in some of the studies, may have resulted in a selection bias favoring patients with greater-than-average willingness and ability to participate in the studies. A bias of this kind would make it difficult to validly answer the question whether risk-factor modification during intensive care might improve the clinical outcome.

Overview

The marked heterogeneity among studies with regard to testing procedures and defining criteria makes it difficult to assess the prevalence (and various other aspects) of cognitive impairment after illnesses that necessitate intensive care. It is, therefore, very important that the evaluation of cognitive function should be standardized by the use of consensus-approved measurement instruments, along with the simultaneous acquisition of data on relevant covariables, such as sedation and pain scores.

In future studies, baseline data should be recorded, the clinical course during treatment in intensive care—including delirium, if it arises—should be precisely characterized, and losses to follow-up should be minimized. More prospective, multicenter, interdisciplinary research projects are needed to give us robust information about this long-term dimension of intensive care medicine. In particular, the risk factors should be better characterized, and opportunities for intervention should be identified (e9, e11).

Conflict of interest statement

Dr. Borchers has received reimbursement of travel expenses from Forum für medizinische Fortbildung FomF GmbH and from Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, as well as lecture honoraria from Charité Healthcare Services GmbH, Forum für medizinische Fortbildung FomF GmbH, and Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann GmbH.

Dr. Weiss has served as a paid consultant for Orion Pharma Ltd. and has received lecture honoraria from Orion Pharma Ltd. and Dr. F. Köhler Chemie GmbH.

Prof. Spies has received payment for carrying out research and clinical studies from Aridis Pharmaceutical Inc., B. Braun Melsungen AG, Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA, Grünenthal GmbH, Infectopharm GmbH, Sedana Medical Ltd., and Sintetica GmbH.

The remaining authors state that they have no conflict of interest.

Manuscript submitted on 6 February 2019, revised version accepted on
16 July 2019.

Translated from the original German by Ethan Taub, M.D.

Corresponding author
Dr. med. Julius Valentin Emmrich
Klinik für Neurologie mit Experimenteller Neurologie
Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (CCM)
Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
julius.emmrich@charite.de

Cite this as:
Kohler J, Borchers F, Endres M, Weiss B, Spies C, Emmrich JV:
Cognitive deficits following intensive care. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 627–34. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0627

Supplementary material

For eReferences please refer to:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/ref3819

eTables, eFigure:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/19m0627

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e5.
Torgersen J, Hole JF, Kvale R, Wentzel-Larsen T, Flaatten H: Cognitive impairments after critical illness. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2011; 55: 1044–51 CrossRef MEDLINE
e6.
Woon FL, Dunn CB, Hopkins RO: Predicting cognitive sequelae in survivors of critical illness with cognitive screening tests. AmJ Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 333–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
e7.
Zhao J, Yao L, Wang C, Sun Y, Sun Z: The effects of cognitive intervention on cognitive impairments after intensive care unit admission. Neuropsychol Rehabil 2017; 27: 301–17 CrossRef MEDLINE
e8.
Jackson JC, Ely EW: Cognitive impairment after critical illness: etiologies, risk factors, and future directions. Sem Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 34: 216–22 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.
Hopkins RO, Wade D, Jackson JC: What‘s new in cognitive function in ICU survivors. Intensive Care Med 2017; 43: 223–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.
Rengel KF, Hayhurst CJ, Pandharipande PP, Hughes CG: Long-term cognitive and functional impairments after critical illness. Anesth Analg 2019; 128: 772–80 CrossRef MEDLINE
e11.
Wilcox ME, Brummel NE, Archer K, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Hopkins RO: Cognitive dysfunction in ICU patients: Risk factors, predictors, and rehabilitation interventions. Critical Care Med 2013; 41: 81–98 CrossRef MEDLINE
e12.
Wolters AE, Slooter AJ, van der Kooi AW, van Dijk D: Cognitive impairment after intensive care unit admission: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 2013; 39: 376–86 CrossRef MEDLINE
e13.
Clancy O, Edginton T, Casarin A, Vizcaychipi MP: The psychological and neurocognitive consequences of critical illness. A pragmatic review of current evidence. J Intensive Care Soc 2015; 16: 226–33 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e14.
Denke C, Balzer F, Menk M, et al.: Long-term sequelae of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe community-acquired pneumonia: Delirium-associated cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Int Med Research 2018; 46: 2265–83 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e15.
Hopkins RO, Choong K, Zebuhr CA, Kudchadkar SR: Transforming PICU culture to facilitate early rehabilitation. J Pediatric Intensive Care 2015; 4: 204–11 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e16.
Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, et al.: Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 2014; 2: 369–79 CrossRef
e17.
Sakusic A, Rabinstein AA: Cognitive outcomes after critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care 2018; 24: 410–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
e18.
Duning T, van den Heuvel I, Dickmann A, et al.: Hypoglycemia aggravates critical illness-induced neurocognitive dysfunction. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 639–44 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e19.
Pandharipande PP, Ely EW, Arora RC, et al.: The intensive care delirium research agenda: a multinational, interprofessional perspective. Intensive Care Med 2017; 43: 1329–1339 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e20.
Marra A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, Patel MB: The ABCDEF bundle in critical care. Crit Care Clin 2017; 33: 225–43 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e21.
Baron R, Binder A, Biniek R, et al.: Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) – short version. GMS e-journal 2015; 13: Doc19.
e22.
Vincent JL, Shehabi Y, Walsh TS, et al.: Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation: the eCASH concept. Intensive Care Med 2016; 42: 962–71 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e23.
Dodoo-Schittko F, Brandstetter S, Apfelbacher C, Bein T: Folgen kritischer Erkrankung und mögliche Interventionen. AINS 2017; 52: 137–44 CrossRef MEDLINE
e24.
Connolly B, Salisbury L, O‘Neill B, et al.: Exercise rehabilitation following intensive care unit discharge for recovery from critical illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015: Cd008632 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e25.
Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, et al.: Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Med 2013; 41: 263–306 CrossRef MEDLINE
e26.
Nedergaard HK, Jensen HI, Toft P: Interventions to reduce cognitive impairments following critical illness: a topical systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2017; 61: 135–48 CrossRef MEDLINE
e27.
Jackson JC, Ely EW, Morey MC, et al.: Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. Critical Care Med 2012; 40: 1088–97 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e28.
Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Girard TD, et al.: A combined early cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for people who are critically ill: the activity and cognitive therapy in the intensive care unit (ACT-ICU) trial. Physical Ther 2012; 92: 1580–92 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e29.
Brummel NE, Girard TD, Ely EW, et al.: Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial. Intensive Care Med 2014; 40: 370–9 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e30.
Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, et al.: Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England) 2009; 373: 1874–82 CrossRef
e31.
Hopkins RO, Suchyta MR, Farrer TJ, Needham D: Improving post-intensive care unit neuropsychiatric outcomes: understanding cognitive effects of physical activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 1220–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
*Joint first authors.
Department of Neurology With Experimental Neurology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin: Joel Kohler, Prof. Dr. med. Matthias Endres, Dr. med. Julius Valentin Emmrich, MPhil
Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine at Campus Benjamin Franklin Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin: Dr. med. Friedrich Borchers, Dr. med. Björn Weiss, Prof. Dr. med. Claudia Spies
The management of delirium
The management of delirium
Box
The management of delirium
Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).
Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).
Figure
Overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, affected cognitive domains, types of course, sequelae, and approaches to the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits arising in non-surgical patients after treatment in an intensive care unit (e9).
Key messages
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)
Table 1
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care (patients with a non-surgical admitting diagnosis)
Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up
Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up
Table 2
Selected original articles: information on the number of included patients, mortality, loss to follow-up, and the number of patients evaluated at the time point of follow-up
PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
eFigure
PRISMA flowchart of the literature search and selection process (PRISMA = Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
eTable 1
Neuropsychological tests used, diagnostic criteria for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, information provided on whether there was a control group and on the educational level of the patients studied, study design, and study implementation
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1
eTable 2
Table of abbreviations for the test procedures mentioned in eTable 1
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
eTable 3
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses)
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3
eTable 4
Original articles on the prevalence of cognitive deficits after intensive care: studies with mixed patient populations (surgical and non-surgical admitting diagnoses) – supplement to eTable 3
1.Needham DM, Davidson J, Cohen H, et al.: Improving long-term outcomes after discharge from intensive care unit: report from a stakeholders‘ conference. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 502–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
2.Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Collingridge D, Parkinson RB, Chan KJ, Orme JF, Jr.: Two-year cognitive, emotional, and quality-of-life outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 340–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
3.Norman BC, Jackson JC, Graves JA, et al.: Employment outcomes after critical illness: An analysis of the bringing to light the risk factors and incidence of neuropsychological dysfunction in ICU survivors cohort. Crit Care Med 2016; 44: 2003–9 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
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6.Unroe M, Kahn JM, Carson SS, et al.: One-year trajectories of care and resource utilization for recipients of prolonged mechanical ventilation: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153: 167–75 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
7.Hopkins RO, Girard TD: Medical and economic implications of cognitive and psychiatric disability of survivorship. Semin Respir and critical care medicine 2012; 33: 348–56 CrossRef MEDLINE
8.Herridge MS, Moss M, Hough CL, et al.: Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers. Intensive Care Med 2016; 42: 725–38 CrossRef MEDLINE
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12.Feinkohl I, Winterer G, Pischon T: Associations of dyslipidaemia and lipid-lowering treatment with risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health 2018; 72: 499–506 CrossRef MEDLINE
13.Feinkohl I, Winterer G, Pischon T: Diabetes is associated with risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Metabolism Res Rev 2017; 5: 33 CrossRef MEDLINE
14.Iwashyna TJ, Ely EW, Smith DM, Langa KM: Long-term cognitive impairment and functional disability among survivors of severe sepsis. Jama 2010; 304: 1787–94 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
15.Wilson JE, Duggan MC, Chandrasekhar R, et al.: Deficits in self-reported initiation are associated with subsequent disability in ICU survivors. Psychosomatics 2018; 60: 376–84 CrossRefMEDLINE
16.Holzgraefe B, Andersson C, Kalzen H, et al.: Does permissive hypoxaemia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cause long-term neurological impairment?: A study in patients with H1N1-induced severe respiratory failure. Eur Journal Anaesthesiol 2017; 34: 98–103 CrossRef MEDLINE
17.Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Pope D, Orme JF, Bigler ED, Larson LV: Neuropsychological sequelae and impaired health status in survivors of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 160: 50–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
18.Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Chan KJ, Orme JF, Jr.: Quality of life, emotional, and cognitive function following acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2004; 10: 1005–17 CrossRef MEDLINE
19.Hopkins RO, Suchyta MR, Snow GL, Jephson A, Weaver LK, Orme JF: Blood glucose dysregulation and cognitive outcome in ARDS survivors. Brain Injury 2010; 24: 1478–84 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.Gilmore EJ, Gaspard N, Choi HA, et al.: Acute brain failure in severe sepsis: a prospective study in the medical intensive care unit utilizing continuous EEG monitoring. Intensive Care Med 2015; 41: 686–94 CrossRef MEDLINE
21.Ambrosino N, Bruletti G, Scala V, Porta R, Vitacca M: Cognitive and perceived health status in patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease surviving acute on chronic respiratory failure: a controlled study. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 170–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
22.Calsavara AJC, Costa PA, Nobre V, Teixeira AL: Factors associated with short and long term cognitive changes in patients with sepsis. Sci Rep 2018; 8: 4509 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
23.Needham DM, Dinglas VD, Morris PE, et al.: Physical and cognitive performance of patients with acute lung injury 1 year after initial trophic versus full enteral feeding. EDEN trial follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 188: 567–76 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
24.Needham DM, Colantuoni E, Dinglas VD, et al.: Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4: 203–12 CrossRef
25.von Bahr V, Kalzen H, Hultman J, et al.: Long-term cognitive outcome and brain imaging in adults after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Crit Care Med 2018; 46: e351-e8 CrossRef MEDLINE
26.Rothenhausler HB, Ehrentraut S, Stoll C, Schelling G, Kapfhammer HP: The relationship between cognitive performance and employment and health status in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of an exploratory study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2001; 23: 90–6 CrossRef
27.Cronberg T, Lilja G, Rundgren M, Friberg H, Widner H: Long-term neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 2009; 80: 1119–23 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.Cronberg T, Lilja G, Horn J, et al.: Neurologic function and health-related quality of life in patients following targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C vs 36 degrees C after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A randomized clinical trial. Jama Neurol 2015; 72: 634–41 CrossRef MEDLINE
29.Daly BJ, Douglas SL, Gordon NH, et al.: Composite outcomes of chronically critically ill patients 4 months after hospital discharge. Am J Crit Care 2009; 18: 456–64 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
30.de Azevedo JR, Montenegro WS, Rodrigues DP, et al.: Long-term cognitive outcomes among unselected ventilated and non-ventilated ICU patients. J Intensive Care 2017; 5: 18 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
31.Ehlenbach WJ, Hough CL, Crane PK, et al.: Association between acute care and critical illness hospitalization and cognitive function in older adults. Jama 2010; 303: 763–70 CrossRef CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
32.Girard TD, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, et al.: Delirium as a predictor of long-term cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness. Crit Care Med 2010; 38: 1513–20 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
33.Jackson JC, Hart RP, Gordon SM, et al.: Six-month neuropsychological outcome of medical intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: 1226–34 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.Jackson JC, Girard TD, Gordon SM, et al.: Long-term cognitive and psychological outcomes in the awakening and breathing controlled
trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182: 183–91 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
35.Jones C, Griffiths RD, Slater T, Benjamin KS, Wilson S: Significant cognitive dysfunction in non-delirious patients identified during and persisting following critical illness. Intensive Care Med 2006; 32: 923–6 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.Lilja G, Nielsen N, Friberg H, et al.: Cognitive function in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after target temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C. Circulation 2015; 131: 1340–9 CrossRefMEDLINE
37.Mikkelsen ME, Christie JD, Lanken PN, et al.: The adult respiratory distress syndrome cognitive outcomes study: long-term neuropsychological function in survivors of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 185: 1307–15 CrossRef CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
38.Mitchell ML, Shum DHK, Mihala G, Murfield JE, Aitken LM: Long-term cognitive impairment and delirium in intensive care: A prospective cohort study. Australian Critical Care 2018; 31: 204–11 CrossRef MEDLINE
39.Nelson JE, Tandon N, Mercado AF, Camhi SL, Ely EW, Morrison RS: Brain dysfunction: another burden for the chronically critically ill. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1993–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
40.Nunes B, Pais J, Garcia R, Magalhaes Z, Granja C, Silva MC: Cardiac arrest: long-term cognitive and imaging analysis. Resuscitation 2003; 57: 287–97. CrossRef
e1.Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, et al.: Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness. N Eng J Med 2013; 369: 1306–16 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e2.Sacanella E, Perez-Castejon JM, Nicolas JM, et al.: Functional status and quality of life 12 months after discharge from a medical ICU in healthy elderly patients: a prospective observational study. Critical Care (London, England) 2011; 15: R105 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e3.Sukantarat KT, Burgess PW, Williamson RC, Brett SJ: Prolonged cognitive dysfunction in survivors of critical illness. Anaesthesia 2005; 60: 847–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
e4.Torgersen J, Strand K, Bjelland TW, et al.: Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life after a cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 721–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
e5.Torgersen J, Hole JF, Kvale R, Wentzel-Larsen T, Flaatten H: Cognitive impairments after critical illness. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2011; 55: 1044–51 CrossRef MEDLINE
e6.Woon FL, Dunn CB, Hopkins RO: Predicting cognitive sequelae in survivors of critical illness with cognitive screening tests. AmJ Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 333–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
e7.Zhao J, Yao L, Wang C, Sun Y, Sun Z: The effects of cognitive intervention on cognitive impairments after intensive care unit admission. Neuropsychol Rehabil 2017; 27: 301–17 CrossRef MEDLINE
e8.Jackson JC, Ely EW: Cognitive impairment after critical illness: etiologies, risk factors, and future directions. Sem Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 34: 216–22 CrossRef MEDLINE
e9.Hopkins RO, Wade D, Jackson JC: What‘s new in cognitive function in ICU survivors. Intensive Care Med 2017; 43: 223–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
e10.Rengel KF, Hayhurst CJ, Pandharipande PP, Hughes CG: Long-term cognitive and functional impairments after critical illness. Anesth Analg 2019; 128: 772–80 CrossRef MEDLINE
e11.Wilcox ME, Brummel NE, Archer K, Ely EW, Jackson JC, Hopkins RO: Cognitive dysfunction in ICU patients: Risk factors, predictors, and rehabilitation interventions. Critical Care Med 2013; 41: 81–98 CrossRef MEDLINE
e12.Wolters AE, Slooter AJ, van der Kooi AW, van Dijk D: Cognitive impairment after intensive care unit admission: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 2013; 39: 376–86 CrossRef MEDLINE
e13.Clancy O, Edginton T, Casarin A, Vizcaychipi MP: The psychological and neurocognitive consequences of critical illness. A pragmatic review of current evidence. J Intensive Care Soc 2015; 16: 226–33 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e14.Denke C, Balzer F, Menk M, et al.: Long-term sequelae of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe community-acquired pneumonia: Delirium-associated cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Int Med Research 2018; 46: 2265–83 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e15.Hopkins RO, Choong K, Zebuhr CA, Kudchadkar SR: Transforming PICU culture to facilitate early rehabilitation. J Pediatric Intensive Care 2015; 4: 204–11 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e16. Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, et al.: Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 2014; 2: 369–79 CrossRef
e17.Sakusic A, Rabinstein AA: Cognitive outcomes after critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care 2018; 24: 410–4 CrossRef MEDLINE
e18.Duning T, van den Heuvel I, Dickmann A, et al.: Hypoglycemia aggravates critical illness-induced neurocognitive dysfunction. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 639–44 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e19.Pandharipande PP, Ely EW, Arora RC, et al.: The intensive care delirium research agenda: a multinational, interprofessional perspective. Intensive Care Med 2017; 43: 1329–1339 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e20. Marra A, Ely EW, Pandharipande PP, Patel MB: The ABCDEF bundle in critical care. Crit Care Clin 2017; 33: 225–43 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e21.Baron R, Binder A, Biniek R, et al.: Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015) – short version. GMS e-journal 2015; 13: Doc19.
e22.Vincent JL, Shehabi Y, Walsh TS, et al.: Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation: the eCASH concept. Intensive Care Med 2016; 42: 962–71 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e23.Dodoo-Schittko F, Brandstetter S, Apfelbacher C, Bein T: Folgen kritischer Erkrankung und mögliche Interventionen. AINS 2017; 52: 137–44 CrossRef MEDLINE
e24.Connolly B, Salisbury L, O‘Neill B, et al.: Exercise rehabilitation following intensive care unit discharge for recovery from critical illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015: Cd008632 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e25.Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, et al.: Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Med 2013; 41: 263–306 CrossRef MEDLINE
e26.Nedergaard HK, Jensen HI, Toft P: Interventions to reduce cognitive impairments following critical illness: a topical systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2017; 61: 135–48 CrossRef MEDLINE
e27.Jackson JC, Ely EW, Morey MC, et al.: Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation. Critical Care Med 2012; 40: 1088–97 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e28.Brummel NE, Jackson JC, Girard TD, et al.: A combined early cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for people who are critically ill: the activity and cognitive therapy in the intensive care unit (ACT-ICU) trial. Physical Ther 2012; 92: 1580–92 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e29.Brummel NE, Girard TD, Ely EW, et al.: Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial. Intensive Care Med 2014; 40: 370–9 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e30. Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, et al.: Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England) 2009; 373: 1874–82 CrossRef
e31. Hopkins RO, Suchyta MR, Farrer TJ, Needham D: Improving post-intensive care unit neuropsychiatric outcomes: understanding cognitive effects of physical activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 186: 1220–8 CrossRef MEDLINE