Review article

Bladder Cancer

Etiology and Prevention

Dtsch Arztebl 2007; 104(11): A-719

Golka, K; Goebell, P J; Rettenmeier, A W

For technical reasons, the English full text will be published approximately two weeks after the German print edition has been published.

1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ed.: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. Lyon: World Health Organization (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 2004; 83.
2. Brennan P, Bogillot O, Cordier S et al.: Cigarette smoking and bladder cancer in men: a pooled analysis of 11 case-control studies. Int J Cancer 2000; 86: 289–94. MEDLINE
3. Brennan P, Bogillot O, Greiser E et al.: The contribution of cigarette smoking to bladder cancer in women (pooled European data). Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 411–7. MEDLINE
4. Vineis P, Marinelli D, Autrup H et al.: Current smoking, occupation, N-acetyltransferase-2 and bladder cancer: A pooled analysis of genotype-based studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 1249–52. MEDLINE
5. Doll R, Peto R: The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 66: 1191–308. MEDLINE
6. Colditz G, DeJong W, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D, Willet HW, eds.: Harvard report on cancer prevention Vol 1: Causes of human cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7(Suppl.): S3–59. MEDLINE
7. Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Hrsg.: Beruflich verursachte Krebserkrankungen. Eine Darstellung der im Zeitraum 1978 bis 2003 anerkannten Berufskrankheiten. 8. überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage Sankt Augustin: Hrsg. 2005. http://www.hvbg.de/d/pages/service/publik/pdf_bild/krebs.pdf
8. Sorahan T, Hamilton L, Jackson JR: A further cohort study of workers employed at a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry, with special reference to the chemicals 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), aniline, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine and o-toluidine. Occup Environ Med 2000; 57: 106–15. MEDLINE
9. Straif K, Weiland SK, Werner B, Chambless L, Mundt KA, Keil U: Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 2: Mortality from non-respiratory cancers. Occup Environ Med 1998; 55: 325–32. MEDLINE
10. Golka K, Prior V, Blaszkewicz M et al.: Occupational history aspects and genetic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) polymorphism in urothelial cancer patients in Leverkusen, Germany. Scand J Work Environ Health 1996; 22: 332–8. MEDLINE
11. Golka K, Kopps S, Myslak ZW: Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability. Toxicol Lett 2004; 151: 203–10. MEDLINE
12. Myslak ZW, Bolt HM, Brockmann W: Tumors of the urinary bladder in painters: a case-control study. Am J Ind Med 1991; 19: 705–13. MEDLINE
13. Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Yu MC, Ross RK: Use of permanent hair dyes and bladder-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2001; 91: 575–9. MEDLINE
14. Gago-Dominguez M, Bell DA, Watson MA et al.: Permanent hair dyes and bladder cancer: risk modification by cytochrome P450 1A2 and N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2. Carcinogenesis 2003; 24: 483–9. MEDLINE
15. Manz A: Harnwegskarzinome bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie. Münch Med Wschr 1976; 118: 65–8. MEDLINE
16. Rönneberg A, Langmark F: Epidemiologic evidence of cancer in aluminium reduction plant workers. Am J Ind Med 1992; 22: 573–90. MEDLINE
17. Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Lawther PL, Seidman H: Inhalation of benzpyrene and cancer in man. Ann NY Acad Sci 1976; 271: 116–24. MEDLINE
18. Letzel S, Letzel H, Blümner E, Hendrichs A, Sommerburg C: Haut-, Bronchial-, Kehlkopf- und Harnwegskarzinommorbidität bei Patienten mit berufsbedingter Teerhaut. Sankt Augustin: HVBG 1992.
19. Golka K, Bandel T, Reckwitz T et al.: Berufliche Risiken des Harnblasenkarzinoms. Eine Fall­kontroll­studie. Urologe [A] 1999; 38: 358–63. MEDLINE
20. Schifflers E, Jamart J, Renard V: Tobacco and occupation as risk factors in bladder cancer: a case-control study in southern Belgium. Int J Cancer 1987; 39: 287–92. MEDLINE
21. Goebell PJ, Villanueva CM, Rettenmeier AW, Rübben H, Kogevinas M: Environmental exposure, chlorinated drinking water, and bladder cancer. World J Urol 2004; 21: 424–32. MEDLINE
22. Chen YC, Su HJ, Guo YL et al.: Arsenic methylation and bladder cancer risk in Taiwan. Cancer Causes Control 2003; 14: 303–10. MEDLINE
23. Travis LB, Curtis RE, Glimelius B et al.: Bladder and kidney cancer following cyclophosphamide therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 524–30. MEDLINE
24. Boice Jr JD, Day NE, Andersen A et al.: Second cancers following radiation treatment for cervical cancer. An international collaboration among cancer registries. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 74: 955–75. MEDLINE
25. Dolin PJ, Darby SC, Beral V: Paraplegia and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in young women: findings from a case-control study. Br J Cancer. 1994; 70: 167–8. MEDLINE
e1. Becker N, Wahrendorf J: Krebsatlas der Bundesrepublik Deutschland/Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany 1981–1990. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1997.
e2. GEKID Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e.v. und Robert Koch Institut: Krebs in Deutschland Häufigkeiten und Trends. 5., überarbeitete, aktualisierte Ausgabe Saarbrücken 2006 www.rki.de/krebs
e3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ed.: Tobacco smoking. Lyon: World Health Organization 1986 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, 1986; 38.
e4. Pitard A, Brennan P, Clavel J et al.: Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk in European men. Cancer Causes Control 2001; 12: 551–6. MEDLINE
e5. Clavel J, Cordier S, Boccon-Gibbod L, Hemon D: Tobacco and bladder cancer in males: increased risk for inhalers and smokers of black tobacco. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 605–10. MEDLINE
e6. Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Skipper PL et al.: Gender- and smoking-related bladder cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 538–45. MEDLINE
e7. Zeegers MP, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA: A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 2002; 13: 83–90. MEDLINE
e8. Lewalter J, Miksche LW: Empfehlungen zur arbeitsmedizinischen Prävention expositions- und dispositionsbedingter Arbeitsstoff-Beanspruchungen. Verh Dt Ges Arbeitsmed 1992; 31: 135–9.
e9. Anthony HM: Industrial exposure in patients with carcinoma of the bladder. J Soc Occup Med 1974; 24:110–6.
e10. Frumin E, Velez H, Bingham E, Gillen M, Brathwaite M, LaBarck R: Occupational bladder cancer in textile dyeing and printing workers: six cases and their significance for screening programs. J Occup Med 1990; 32: 887–90. MEDLINE
e11. Bolm-Audorff U, Jöckel KH, Kilguss B, Pohlabeln H, Siepenkothen T: Bösartige Tumoren der ableitenden Harnwege und Risiken am Arbeitsplatz. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW 1993; 697 (Schriftenreihe der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund, Forschung; Fb).
e12. Claude J, Kunze E, Frentzel-Beyme R: Occupation and risk of cancer of the lower urinary tract among men. A case-control study. Int J Cancer 1988; 41: 371–9. MEDLINE
e13. Golka K: Untersuchungen zur beruflichen Exposition bei Patienten mit Harnblasenkarzinom. Habilitationsschrift zur Erlangung der Venia legendi für das Fach „Arbeitsmedizin“. Bochum: Medizinische Fakultät der Universität 1999.
e14. Hueber-Becker F, Nohynek GJ, Meuling WJ, Benech-Kieffer F, Toutain H: Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin. Food Chem Toxicol 2004; 42: 1227–36. MEDLINE
e15. Nohynek GJ, Skare JA, Meuling WJ, Hein DW, De Bie AT, Toutain H: Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye. Food Chem Toxicol 2004; 42: 1885–91. MEDLINE
e16. Doll R, Vessey MP, Beasley RWR et al.: Mortality of gasworkers – final report of a prospective study. Br J Ind Med 1972; 29: 394–406. MEDLINE
e17. Stern FB, Ruder AM, Chen G: Proportionate mortality among unionized roofers and waterproofers. Am J Ind Med 2000; 37: 478–92. MEDLINE
e18. Golka K, Wiese A, Assennato G, Bolt HM: Occupational exposure and urological cancer. World J Urol 2004; 21: 382–91. MEDLINE
e19. Cordier S, Clavel J, Limasset JC et al.: Occupational risks of bladder cancer in France: a multicentre case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 403–11. MEDLINE
e20. Wynder EL, Onderdonk J, Mantel N: An epidemiological investigation of cancer of the bladder. Cancer 1963; 16: 1388–407. MEDLINE
e21. Evanoff BA, Gustavsson P, Hogstedt C: Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study. Br J Ind Med 1993; 50: 450–9. MEDLINE
e22. Gustavsson P, Gustavsson A, Hogstedt C: Excess of cancer in Swedish chimney sweeps. Br J Ind Med 1988; 45: 777–81. MEDLINE
e23. Brüning T, Chronz C, Thier R, Havelka J, Ko Y, Bolt HM: Occurrence of urinary tract tumors in miners highly exposed to dinitrotoluene. J Occup Environ Med 1999; 41: 144–9. MEDLINE
e24. Roemer HC, Golka K, Schulze H, Loehlein D: Two extrapulmonary neoplasms in a uranium miner. J Roy Soc Med 2002; 95: 302. MEDLINE
e25. Brown DP, Kaplan SD: Retrospective cohort mortality study of dry cleaner workers using perchloroethylene. J Occup Med 1987; 29: 535–41. MEDLINE
e26. Katz RM, Jowett D: Female laundry and dry cleaning workers in Wisconsin: a mortality analysis. Am J Public Health 1981; 71: 305–7. MEDLINE
e27. Mundt KA, Birk T, Burch MT: Critical review of the epidemiological literature on occupational exposure to perchloroethylene and cancer. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2003; 76: 473–91. MEDLINE
e28. Silverman DT, Hoover RH, Albert S, Graff KM: Occupation and cancer of the lower urinary tract in Detroit. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 70: 237–45. MEDLINE
e29. Olsen JH, Jensen O: Occupation and risk of cancer in Denmark. An analysis of 93,810 cancer cases, 1970–1979. Scand J Work Environ Health 1987; 13 (Suppl. 1): 43–51. MEDLINE
e30. Pesch B, Halekoh U, Ranft U, Richter M, Pott F: Atlas zur Krebssterblichkeit in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Düsseldorf: Ministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 1994.
e31. Zingg EJ, Wallace DMA: Bladder cancer. Clinical practice in urology. New York, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 1985.
e32. Bull RJ, Sanchez IM, Nelson MA, Larson JL, Lansing AJ: Liver tumor induction in B6C3F1 mice by dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate. Toxicology 1990; 63: 341–59. MEDLINE
e33. Dunnick JK, Melnick RL: Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chlorinated water: experimental studies of chlorine, chloramine, and trihalomethanes. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 817–22. MEDLINE
e34. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ed.: Chlorinated drinking-water; chlorination by-products; some other halogenated compounds; cobalt and cobalt compounds. Lyon: World Health Organization 1991 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 52).
e35. Komulainen H, Kosma VM, Vaittinen SL et al.: Carcinogenicity of the drinking water mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone in the rat. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 848–56. MEDLINE
e36. Matsumura H, Watanabe M, Matsumoto K, Ohta T: 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) induces gene mutations and inhibits metabolic cooperation in cultured Chinese hamster cells. J Toxicol Environ Health 1994; 43: 65–72. MEDLINE
e37. Thomas EL, Jefferson MM, Bennett JJ, Learn DB: Mutagenic activity of chloramines. Mutat Res 1987; 188: 35–43. MEDLINE
e38. Kurokawa Y, Hayashi Y, Maekawa A, Takahashi M, Kokubo T, Odashima S: Carcinogenicity of potassium bromate administered orally to F344 rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 71: 965–72. MEDLINE
e39. Stauber AJ, Bull RJ: Differences in phenotype and cell replicative behavior of hepatic tumors induced by dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997; 144: 235–46. MEDLINE
e40. Villanueva CM, Fernandez F, Malats N, Grimalt JO, Kogevinas M: Meta-analysis of studies on individual consumption of chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57: 166–173. MEDLINE
e41. Chiou HY, Chiou ST, Hsu YH et al.: Incidence of transitional cell carcinoma and arsenic in drinking water: a follow-up study of 8,102 residents in an arseniasis-endemic area in northeastern Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 411–8. MEDLINE
e42. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ed.: Some drinking-water disinfectants and contaminants, including arsenic. Lyon: World Health Organization 2004 (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 84).
e43. National Academy of Science – National Research Council Academy of Life Science: The health effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds. Washington DC: National Academy of Science Press 1981.
e44. Tricker AR, Preussmann R: Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the diet: occurrence, formation, mechanisms and carcinogenic potential. Mutat Res 1991; 259: 277–89. MEDLINE
e45. McGeehin MA, Reif JS, Becher JC, Mangione EJ: Case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 492–501. MEDLINE
e46. Ward MH, Cantor KP, Riley D, Merkle S, Lynch CF: Nitrate in public water supplies and risk of bladder cancer. Epidemiology 2003; 14: 183–90. MEDLINE
e47. Weyer PJ, Cerhan JR, Kross BC et al.: Municipal drinking water nitrate level and cancer risk in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 327–38. MEDLINE
e48. Altieri A, La Vecchia C, Negri E: Fluid intake and risk of bladder and other cancers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57 Suppl 2: S59–68. MEDLINE
e49. Geoffroy-Perez B, Cordier S: Fluid consumption and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a multicenter case-control study. Int J Cancer 2001; 93: 880–7. MEDLINE
e50. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, Rimm EB, Curhan GC, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL: Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 1390–7. MEDLINE
e51. Radosavljevic V, Jankovic S, Marinkovic J, Djokic M: Fluid intake and bladder cancer. A case control study. Neoplasma 2003; 50: 234–8. MEDLINE
e52. Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, King WD et al.: Total and specific fluid consumption as determinants of bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2006; 118: 2040–7. MEDLINE
e53. Zeegers MP, Kellen E, Buntinx F, van den Brandt PA: The association between smoking, beverage consumption, diet and bladder cancer: a systematic literature review. World J Urol 2004; 21: 392–401. MEDLINE
e54. Claude J, Kunze E, Frentzel-Beyme R, Paczkowski K, Schneider J, Schubert H: Life-style and occupational risk factors in cancer of the lower urinary tract. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 578–89. MEDLINE
e55. Sommer F, Klotz T, Schmitz-Dräger BJ: Lifestyle issues and genitourinary tumours. World J Urol 2004; 21: 402–13. MEDLINE
e56. Zeegers MP, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA: Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 2001; 85: 977–83. MEDLINE
e57. World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective, WCRF 1997; 4.18: 338–61.
e58. Schmähl D: Maligne Tumoren. Aulendorf: Editio Cantor Verlag 1981.
e59. Fernandes ET, Manivel JC, Reddy PK, Ercole CJ: Cyclophosphamide associated bladder cancer – a highly aggressive disease: analysis of 12 cases. J Urol 1996; 156: 1931–3. MEDLINE
e60. Brenner H, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H: Untersuchungen zum Auftreten von Zweittumoren nach Zervixneoplasien im Saarland 1968–1987. Geburtsh Frauenheilk 1990; 50: 614–8. MEDLINE
e61. Kleinerman RA, Boice JD Jr, Storm HH et al.: Second primary cancer after treatment for cervical cancer. An international cancer registries study. Cancer 1995; 76: 442–52. MEDLINE
e62. Duncan RE, Bennett DW, Evans AT, Aron BS, Schellhas HF: Radiation-induced bladder tumors. J Urol 1977; 118: 43–5. MEDLINE
e63. Melzak J: The incidence of bladder cancer in paraplegia. Paraplegia 1966; 4: 85–96. MEDLINE
e64. Kantor AF, Hartge P, Hoover RN, Narayana AS, Sulivan JW, Fraumeni JF: Urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1984; 119: 510–5. MEDLINE
e65. Nishikawa A, Morse MA, Chung FL: Inhibitory effects of 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate and 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate on urinary bladder tumorigenesis in rats induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Cancer Lett 2003; 193: 11–6. MEDLINE

Info

Specialities