DÄ internationalArchive49/2009Helicobacter Pylori and Gastroduodenal Ulcer Disease

Clinical Practice Guideline

Helicobacter Pylori and Gastroduodenal Ulcer Disease

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106(49): 801-8. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2009.0801

Fischbach, W; Malfertheiner, P; Hoffmann, J C; Bolten, W; Kist, M; Koletzko, S

Background: Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases and gastroduodenal ulcer disease are common conditions of major clinical and economic importance. There is thus a need for a guideline that incorporates the scientific knowledge gained in recent years and that takes specific aspects of the situation in Germany into account with regard to epidemiology, resistance status, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment.
Methods: This level-S3 consensus guideline was developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF). It was commissioned by the German Association for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten, DGVS) and prepared in cooperation with other scientific societies. After search terms were compiled, a systematic, IT-supported literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. The search was restricted to articles that appeared in German or English from 2000 onward.
Results: H. pylori infection can be accurately diagnosed either non-invasively (with a 13C-urea breath test or a stool antigen test) or invasively (with a rapid urease test, by histology, or by culture). Gastric and duodenal ulcer and gastric MALT lymphoma are absolute indications for eradication therapy; relative indications include functional dyspepsia, the prevention of gastric cancer in persons at risk, the initiation of long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and the prior occurrence of gastroduodenal complications with the use of either NSAID or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). First-line therapy consists of a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and clarithromycin combined with either metronidazole or amoxicillin, given for at least one week.
Conclusion: This guideline enables the structured, evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection and associated conditions, as well as of gastroduodenal ulcer disease.
Key words: Helicobacter pylori, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, guideline
LNSLNS After the (re)discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 by Warren und Marshall (1), the importance of this organism in gastroduodenal ulcer disease was recognized. In the years that followed, it was also found to play an etiological and pathogenetic role in gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma, and to be associated with yet other diseases of the stomach and other organs.

In view of the high frequency of H. pylori associated diseases, including gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and their major clinical and socioeconomic importance, an interdisciplinary guideline is needed that will take into account new scientific knowledge on this topic as well as specific considerations for Germany with respect to epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, diagnosis, and treatment. This guideline was developed on the initiative of the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten, DGVS) and in collaboration with other medical societies. It meets the methodological criteria for an evidence-based guideline of level 3 (S3) as defined by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF).

In this brief summary, important practical aspects of the epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of H. pylori infection are presented, and the indications for its eradication are presented as recommended in the guideline. For further information, the reader is directed to the complete guideline (2), which also contains literature references for some pieces of information whose source is not specified in this article.

Methods
The organizing committee assembled the expert groups, named the group leaders, and defined seven groups of topics (Box gif ppt):

• Epidemiology
• Diagnostic evaluation, characterization, resistance, and resistance testing
• Indications for the treatment of H. pylori infection in benign disease
• Prevention and treatment of neoplastic diseases of the stomach (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type, gastric carcinoma)
• Treatment of H. pylori infection
• Special considerations of H. pylori infection in children and adolescents
• Gastroduodenal ulcer diseases that are not associated with H. pylori.

A working group was established at the Charité Hospital (Berlin) in the framework of the competence network on chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (members: W. Höhne, J. Hoffmann, J. Preiß). The members of this working group conducted a workshop in which they instructed the participants in the working groups for each of the topics listed above in the proper procedures for choosing search terms and for performing formal literature searches. The searches were carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. They were restricted to publications in English or German that had appeared from 2000 onward (guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies). Computer specialists were available to help with the generation of consensus-supported dictionaries. The literature search on the chosen terms yielded nearly 20 000 articles. The flowchart in Figure 1 (gif ppt) shows, by way of illustration, the method that was used to select articles for evaluation in topic group I, “epidemiology.”

Literature searching and supplementation finally yielded 490 selected articles, on the basis of which the group leaders formulated the questions to be addressed. These were then answered in the individual working groups, whereupon the final catalogue of questions was made accessible over the Internet for further processing by all guideline participants (Delphi technique). The group leaders made recommendations for consensus formation on the basis of the answers that had been received to the catalogue of questions, and these recommendations were discussed and revised in the individual working groups on the first day of the concluding consensus conference. Thereafter, the consensus recommendations were submitted to a vote via TED (Tele-Dialog, a tele-voting procedure) (Table 1 gif ppt). In general, the strength of the evidence determined the recommendation grade (Table 2 gif ppt). In some cases where it was thought to be appropriate, however, the consensus conference chose to make the recommendation grade either higher or lower than the strength of the evidence alone might have implied.

Epidemiological situation in Germany
The Gram-negative bacterium H. pylori is an obligate pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa and induces a chronic, active type B gastritis. Conditions that can then arise in the affected tissue include gastroduodenal ulcer disease, distal (non-cardiac) gastric carci-noma, and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) type (A, strong consensus) (6, 7).

The epidemiological situation in Germany is characterized by the following:

• An increasing rate of infection with age: 5% of children and 30% of adults are infected with H. pylori (3, 4)
• A markedly higher infection rate in immigrants (36% to 86%)
• A decline in infection rates in recent decades, and also projected into the future ([5]; cohort effect)
• Acquisition of the infection from family members during infancy
• Oral-oral, gastric-oral, and fecal-oral transmission
• Rare recurrent infections in adults (1% per year).

Vaccination or other preventive measures against H. pylori infection are currently unavailable.

Diagnosis of H. pylori infection
H. pylori infection can be diagnosed either directly (by demonstration of the organism or of fragments of it) or indirectly (measurement of urease activity, antibody detection). Both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic techniques can be used (A, strong consensus). All of the invasive methods are based on endoscopy and the acquisition of biopsy specimens. The various tests have high sensitivity and specificity (Table 3 gif ppt) (8, 9), but false-positive and false-negative results remain possible. The former may be due to bacterial colonization of the mouth, pharynx, or stomach, while the latter may be seen in cases of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or when the bacterial colonization is of low density in the aftermath of partial gastric resection or suppressive treatment for H. pylori.

Criteria for reliable diagnosis
The selection of a testing procedure to demonstrate H. pylori infection depends on the question being asked, as well as on the indication. Whenever endoscopy is performed, a rapid urease test combined with histology is an option. This procedure involves the taking of one biopsy specimen each from the antrum and corpus of the stomach for the rapid urease test, and then of two further specimens from each of these sites for histology. It thus fulfils the requirement of two positive test results for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection (C, strong consensus). The only exception to this rule is duodenal ulcer, for which a single positive test result suffices for therapeutic decision-making, in view of the high prevalence of H. pylori in this disease. Histology has the main advantage that it not only reveals the presence of the organism, but also yields information about the distributive pattern and activity of gastritis. Culture is 100% specific, but relatively cumbersome and expensive, because the biopsy specimens must be sent to a microbiology laboratory in a special nutritive medium. Therefore, culture is usually performed only when resistance testing is needed. If the rapid urease test and the histology yield discordant results, then a urea breath test or stool antigen test for monoclonal antibodies is performed next. Serological tests are an unsuitable basis for therapeutic decision-making, as they cannot differentiate prior infections from persistent infections that require treatment.

Attention should be paid to the minimum temporal interval between any prior suppressive treatment for H. pylori and the performance of the test: two weeks after treatment with proton-pump inhibitors and four weeks after eradication therapy or antibiotic treatment for other indications (C, consensus). It is unclear whether H2-receptor antagonists also lower test sensitivity.

From diagnosis to treatment
The required steps from diagnosis with the methods described above to treatment are summarized in Figure 2 (gif ppt).

First, it must be determined whether a diagnostic evaluation for H. pylori is indicated and whether eradication therapy would be indicated in case of a positive finding (D, strong consensus). If so, the presence of infection must always be demonstrated before treatment is begun (D, consensus). Once an infection has been diagnosed, empirical first-line treatment is initiated (except in children). This is possible in Germany because of the favorable resistance situation, which permits us to expect therapeutic success in about 90% of cases. If successful eradication is confirmed after the necessary minimum interval of time between the end of treatment and the test, routine follow-up testing for H. pylori reinfection is not necessary (B, strong consensus). If the bacterium has not been eradicated, the course of further treatment depends on whether follow-up endoscopy is indicated. If endoscopy is performed, biopsy specimens should be taken for culture and resistance testing (B, majority agreement). This makes it possible for second-line treatment to be given in accordance with the patient’s specific pattern of drug resistances and sensitivities. If endoscopy is not performed, second-line treatment is given empirically; if this also fails to eradicate the organism, then endoscopy with biopsy for culture and sensitivity testing is mandatory (B, consensus).

Treatment of H. pylori infection
The initial treatment of H. pylori infection should consist of triple therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and metronidazole or amoxicillin, given for at least one week (A, strong consensus) (Table 4 gif ppt) (12). Sequential treatment (PPI and amoxi-cillin for five days, followed by PPI, clarithromycin, and an imidazole derivative for five days) or other types of quadruple therapy are alternative options (A, majority agreement) (20). The data on sequential treatment were, however, obtained in countries with incomparably higher rates of clarithromycin resistance and thus do not necessarily reflect the likelihood of success of this treatment in Germany. Another reason why sequential treatment cannot be generally recommended is the complex mode of administration. It is a fact of practical significance that prior reduction of gastric acidity with a PPI does not endanger the success of H. pylori eradication, and thus intravenous antibiotics are not necessary for patients in intensive care units who have bleeding ulcers (A, strong consensus). The rate of severe complications should be less than 5% (D, consensus), as it indeed is for the first-line protocol outlined here. Nearly all side effects are due solely to the antibiotics used.

Second-line treatment is given either in accordance with the determined pattern of antibiotic resistances and sensitivities, or else empirically (Figure 2). Figure 3 (gif ppt) lists the eradication protocols that are available for empirical second-line treatment (21). Attention should be paid to the possible induction of antibiotic resistance and to any individual intolerances or allergies the patient may have (B, strong consensus). Moreover, accompanying measures that markedly increase the chance of success should be meticulously applied. Third-line treatment should always be initiated by a specialist on the basis of resistance testing.

Special considerations in children and adolescents
With regard to H. pylori infection, children and adults differ in many ways, as discussed in detail in the guideline (2). Two practically important aspects deserve special emphasis here: A “test-and-treat” strategy is inappropriate for symptomatic children and adolescents (C, consensus). Sensitivity testing of gastric biopsy specimens should always be performed before the first treatment is provided, and the particular type of eradication therapy to be used should be chosen according to the results (B, strong consensus).

Indications for eradication therapy
The indication for eradication therapy can be absolute, relative, or absent. In the guideline, the position of the recommendation along this continuum is indicated by an auxiliary verb: H. pylori either “must,” “should,” “may,” or “should not” be eradicated. Table 5 (gif ppt) contains a summary of the indications together with the corresponding recommendation grades, consensus strengths, and special remarks. There are three major groups of conditions in which a decision about eradication therapy is needed:

• Gastroduodenal diseases
• Use of traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)
• Extragastric diseases.

Some special aspects of the indications listed in Table 5 receive further comment in what follows. The most common and most evidence-based recommendation for eradication therapy is peptic ulcer. Whether the ulcer is present and florid or known from the -patient’s history, complicated or uncomplicated, gastric or duodenal, H. pylori eradication therapy should always be provided.

In functional dyspepsia, there are two fundamentally different situations that must be distinguished from each other. A “test-and-treat” strategy, i.e., the non-invasive demonstration of H. pylori infection followed by eradication therapy without any evaluation of the patient’s dyspeptic symptoms by endoscopy, is inappropriate in principle. H. pylori eradication therapy can be performed, however, if other causes of dyspepsia have been ruled out by endoscopy. According to the German ELAN study, the number needed to treat (NNT) in this situation is 15 (13).

Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) and ASA are recognized ulcerogenic factors that affect therapeutic decision-making when patients taking them simultaneously have an H. pylori infection. The considerations include:

• Whether long-term treatment with these drugs (i.e., for longer than 4 weeks) is planned or is already in progress
• Whether there are any additional risk factors for gastrointestinal side effects (Table 5)
• Whether the patient is taking tNSAIDs, ASA, or both
• Whether these medications have already caused complications, such as upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Treating the patient with a PPI in addition to eradicating H. pylori is considered to have a greater preventive effect than H. pylori eradication alone and is indicated (“may” or “should” be performed) in certain situations that are listed in Table 5.

New scientific knowledge since issuance of the guideline
The guideline contains an optional recommendation for H. pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric carcinoma in persons at risk. The latter category includes patients with pan- or corpus-dominant gastritis and first-degree relatives of patients with gastric carcinoma. The cancer-preventing effect of bacterial eradication is greater the earlier the treatment is provided. Once atrophy or intestinal metaplasia has developed, a point of no return may have been reached. Nonetheless, in a randomized trial in Japan, H. pylori eradication was also found to prevent the development of metachronic carcinoma to a significant extent in patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of an early gastric carcinoma (odds ratio 0.353, 95% confidence interval 0.161–0.775) (24).

The guideline contains a recommendation that accompanying PPI medication should be given to patients taking ASA and clopidogrel simultaneously, because this combination has been shown to increase the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. This recommendation, however, needs to be modified in the light of more recent data. Two retrospective cohort studies published in 2009 provide evidence that the combination of clopidogrel and PPI’s elevates cardiovascular risk (25, e1). In view of this finding, and with the approval of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), a “red-hand letter” (urgent safety information) was sent out, stating that “the product information for all clopidogrel-containing medicines should be amended to discourage concomitant use of PPI and clopidogrel-containing medicines unless absolutely necessary.” The theoretical explanation for this finding may lie in the fact that one of these two substances is activated, and the other metabolized, by the same cytochrome P450 subtype (CYP2C19). Nonetheless, two of three post-hoc analyses of data from randomized studies (e2e5) have failed to show any negative effect of PPI’s. The decision whether to use a PPI in a patient taking clopidogrel should thus be made judiciously and on the basis of the patient’s individual gastrointestinal risk. A joint position statement on this issue from gastroenterologists and cardiologists would be desirable, in view of the importance of the problem and the large number of cardiac patients affected by it.

Conflict of interest statement
Prof. Fischbach has received lecture honoraria from the Abbott, Sanofi-Aventis, AstraZeneca, Nycomed, Falk, Pfizer, and Norgine companies.

Dr. Bolten has received fees for acting as a consultant, as well as lecture honoraria, from the Pfizer, MDS, and AstraZeneca companies.

Prof. Kist has received financial support in the setting of the “ResiNet” study from Nycomed Deutschland GmbH.

Prof. Malfertheiner has received financial support for lecturing activities from the Abbott, AstraZeneca, and Nycomed companies as well as support for research projects from the AstraZeneca, Axcan, Nycomed, and Novartis companies.

PD Dr. Hoffmann owns shares in Siemens, is a consultant for Essex, and has received lecture honoraria from the Abbott, Esai, Essex, and Falk companies.

Prof. Koletzko has received financial support for research from the Oxoid Ltd. Hampshire, AstraZeneca, and Wedel companies. She has received fees for acting as a consultant for AstraZeneca as well as lecture honoraria from the AstraZeneca and Wedel companies.

Manuscript submitted on 20 April 2009, revised version accepted on 27 October 2009.

Translated from the original German by Ethan Taub, M.D.


Corresponding author
Prof. Dr. med. Wolfgang Fischbach
Medizinische Klinik II und Klinik für Palliativmedizin
Klinikum Aschaffenburg,
Akad. Lehrkrankenhaus der Universität Würzburg
Am Hasenkopf, 63739 Aschaffenburg, Germany
med2-aschaffenburg@t-online.de

@For e-references please refer to:
www.aerzteblatt-international.de/ref4909
1.
Warren JR, Marshall BJ: Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1984; 1: 1311–5. MEDLINE
2.
Fischbach W, Malfertheiner P, Hoffmann JC, et al.: S3-Leitlinie „Helicobacter pylori und gastroduodenale Ulkuskrankheit“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten (DGVS). In Zusammenarbeit mit der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernährung e.V. und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie – AWMF-Register-Nr. 021/001. Z Gastroenterol 2009; 47: 68–102. MEDLINE
3.
Grimm W, Fischbach W: Helicobacter pylori infection in children and juveniles: an epidemiological study on prevalence, socio-economic factors and symptoms. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2003; 128: 1878–83. MEDLINE
4.
Brenner H, Weyermann M, Rothenbacher D: Clustering of Helicobacter pylori infection in couples: differences between high- and low-prevalence population groups. Ann Epidemiol 2006; 16: 516–20. MEDLINE
5.
Parsonnet J: The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 Suppl 2: 45–51. MEDLINE
6.
Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F, et al.: Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. BMJ 1991; 302: 1302–5. MEDLINE
7.
Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, et al.: Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1267–71. MEDLINE
8.
Cutler AF, Havstad S, Ma CK, Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Schubert TT: Accuracy of invasive and noninvasive tests to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 136–41. MEDLINE
9.
Thijs JC, van Zwet AA, Thijs WJ, Oey HB, Karrenbeld A, Stellaard F, et al.: Diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori: a prospective evaluation of their accuracy, without selecting a single test as the gold standard. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 2125–9. MEDLINE
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Ford AC, Delaney BC, Forman D, Moayyedi P: Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (2): CD003840. MEDLINE
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Leodolter A, Kulig M, Brasch H, Meyer-Sabellek W, Willich SN, Malfertheiner P: A meta-analysis comparing eradication, healing and relapse rates in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric or duodenal ulcer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 1949–58. MEDLINE
12.
Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O’Morain C, Bazzoli F, El Omar E, Graham D, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report. Gut 2007; 56: 772–81. MEDLINE
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Malfertheiner P, Layer P, Fischbach W, Mössner J: Helicobacter pylori eradication is beneficial in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 2003; 18: 615–25. MEDLINE
14.
Franchini M, Criciani M, Mengoli C, et al.: Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet count in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a sytematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 60: 237–46. MEDLINE
15.
Chen LH, Luo HS: Effects of H. pylori therapy on erythrocytic and iron parameters in iron deficiency anemia patients with H. pylori-positive chronic gastritis. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 5380–3. MEDLINE
16.
Fischbach W, Goebeler-Kolve ME, Dragosics B, Greiner A, Stolte M: Long term outcome of patients with gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) following exclusive Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: experience from a large prospective series. Gut 2004; 53: 34–7. MEDLINE
17.
Fischbach W, Goebeler ME, Ruskone-Fourmestraux A, et al.: Most patients with minimal histological residuals of gastric MALT lymphoma after successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori can be managed safely by a watch and wait strategy: experience from a large international series. Gut 2007; 56: 1685–7. MEDLINE
18.
WHO/IARC: Infection with Helicobacter pylori. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 61: 177–240. MEDLINE
19.
Forman D, Graham DY: Review article: impact of Helicobacter pylori on society-role for a strategy of “search and eradicate”. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19 (Suppl1): 17–21. MEDLINE
20.
Zullo A, De Francesco V, et al.: The sequential therapy regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a pooled-data analysis. Gut 2007; 56: 1353–7. MEDLINE
21.
Gisbert JP, Morena F: Systematic review and meta-analysis: levofloxacin-based rescue regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 35–44. MEDLINE
22.
Hooper L, Brown TJ, Elliott R, et al.: The effectiveness of five strategies for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: systematic review. BMJ 2004; 329: 948. MEDLINE
23.
Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, et al.: Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2006; 332: 1302–8. MEDLINE
24.
Fukase K, Kato M, Kikuchi A, et al.: Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on the incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 372: 392–7. MEDLINE
e1.
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e2.
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e3.
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e4.
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e5.
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Medizinische Klinik II und Klinik für Palliativmedizin, Klinikum Aschaffenburg: Prof. Dr. med. Fischbach
Klinik für Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie, Universitätklinikum Magdeburg: Prof. Dr. med. Malfertheiner
Abteilung für Innere Medizin I, St. Marien- und St. Annastiftskrankenhaus, Ludwigshafen: PD Dr. med. Hoffmann
Rheumatologie, Klaus-Miehlke-Klinik, Wiesbaden: Dr. med. Bolten
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Nationales Referenzzentrum Helicobacter pylori, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg: Prof. Dr. med. Kist
Abteilung für Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München: Prof. Dr. med. Koletzko
1. Warren JR, Marshall BJ: Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1984; 1: 1311–5. MEDLINE
2. Fischbach W, Malfertheiner P, Hoffmann JC, et al.: S3-Leitlinie „Helicobacter pylori und gastroduodenale Ulkuskrankheit“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten (DGVS). In Zusammenarbeit mit der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernährung e.V. und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie – AWMF-Register-Nr. 021/001. Z Gastroenterol 2009; 47: 68–102. MEDLINE
3. Grimm W, Fischbach W: Helicobacter pylori infection in children and juveniles: an epidemiological study on prevalence, socio-economic factors and symptoms. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2003; 128: 1878–83. MEDLINE
4. Brenner H, Weyermann M, Rothenbacher D: Clustering of Helicobacter pylori infection in couples: differences between high- and low-prevalence population groups. Ann Epidemiol 2006; 16: 516–20. MEDLINE
5. Parsonnet J: The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9 Suppl 2: 45–51. MEDLINE
6. Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F, et al.: Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. BMJ 1991; 302: 1302–5. MEDLINE
7. Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, et al.: Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1267–71. MEDLINE
8. Cutler AF, Havstad S, Ma CK, Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Schubert TT: Accuracy of invasive and noninvasive tests to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 136–41. MEDLINE
9. Thijs JC, van Zwet AA, Thijs WJ, Oey HB, Karrenbeld A, Stellaard F, et al.: Diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori: a prospective evaluation of their accuracy, without selecting a single test as the gold standard. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 2125–9. MEDLINE
10. Ford AC, Delaney BC, Forman D, Moayyedi P: Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (2): CD003840. MEDLINE
11. Leodolter A, Kulig M, Brasch H, Meyer-Sabellek W, Willich SN, Malfertheiner P: A meta-analysis comparing eradication, healing and relapse rates in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric or duodenal ulcer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 1949–58. MEDLINE
12. Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O’Morain C, Bazzoli F, El Omar E, Graham D, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report. Gut 2007; 56: 772–81. MEDLINE
13. Malfertheiner P, Layer P, Fischbach W, Mössner J: Helicobacter pylori eradication is beneficial in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 2003; 18: 615–25. MEDLINE
14. Franchini M, Criciani M, Mengoli C, et al.: Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet count in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a sytematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007; 60: 237–46. MEDLINE
15. Chen LH, Luo HS: Effects of H. pylori therapy on erythrocytic and iron parameters in iron deficiency anemia patients with H. pylori-positive chronic gastritis. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 5380–3. MEDLINE
16. Fischbach W, Goebeler-Kolve ME, Dragosics B, Greiner A, Stolte M: Long term outcome of patients with gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) following exclusive Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: experience from a large prospective series. Gut 2004; 53: 34–7. MEDLINE
17. Fischbach W, Goebeler ME, Ruskone-Fourmestraux A, et al.: Most patients with minimal histological residuals of gastric MALT lymphoma after successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori can be managed safely by a watch and wait strategy: experience from a large international series. Gut 2007; 56: 1685–7. MEDLINE
18. WHO/IARC: Infection with Helicobacter pylori. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1994; 61: 177–240. MEDLINE
19. Forman D, Graham DY: Review article: impact of Helicobacter pylori on society-role for a strategy of “search and eradicate”. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19 (Suppl1): 17–21. MEDLINE
20. Zullo A, De Francesco V, et al.: The sequential therapy regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a pooled-data analysis. Gut 2007; 56: 1353–7. MEDLINE
21. Gisbert JP, Morena F: Systematic review and meta-analysis: levofloxacin-based rescue regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 35–44. MEDLINE
22. Hooper L, Brown TJ, Elliott R, et al.: The effectiveness of five strategies for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: systematic review. BMJ 2004; 329: 948. MEDLINE
23. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, et al.: Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2006; 332: 1302–8. MEDLINE
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e1. Ho PM, Maddox TM, Wang L, et al.: Risk of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Concomitant Use of Clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors Following Acute Coronary Syndrome. JAMA 2009; 301: 937–44. MEDLINE
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