DÄ internationalArchiveReferences

Original article

ADHD in Germany: Trends in Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114(9): 141-8; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0141

Bachmann, C J; Philipsen, A; Hoffmann, F

1.Erskine HE, Ferrari AJ, Polanczyk GV, et al.: The global burden of conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 2010. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2014; 55: 328–36 CrossRef MEDLINE
2.Braun S, Zeidler J, Linder R, Engel S, Verheyen F, Greiner W: Treatment costs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Germany. Eur J Health Econ 2013; 14: 939–45 CrossRef MEDLINE
3.Thapar A, Cooper M: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 2016; 387: 1240–50 CrossRef
4.Döpfner M, Breuer D, Wille N, Erhart M, Ravens-Sieberer U: How often do children meet ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder? Parent-based prevalence rates in a national sample—results of the BELLA study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 17 (Suppl 1): 59–70 CrossRef MEDLINE
5.Visser SN, Danielson ML, Bitsko RH, et al.: Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014; 53: 34–46.e2 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
6.Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H: The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003; 42: 1203–11 CrossRef MEDLINE
7.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Guidance on the use of methylphenidate (ritalin, equasym) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Technology appraisal guidance 13. NICE 2000. www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/filearea.cgi?LMGT1=CHILD-PSYCHIATRY-SPR&a=get&f=/nice_on_ritalin.pdf (last accessed on 1 February 2017).
8.Sibley MH, Mitchell JT, Becker SP: Method of adult diagnosis influences
estimated persistence of childhood ADHD: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Lancet Psychiatry 2016; 3: 1157–65 CrossRef
9.Caye A, Spadini AV, Karam RG, et al.: Predictors of persistence of ADHD into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2016; 25: 1151–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
10.Agnew-Blais JC, Polanczyk GV, Danese A, Wertz J, Moffitt TE, Arseneault L:
Evaluation of the persistence, remission, and emergence of attention-deficit/
hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood. JAMA Psychiatry 2016; 73: 713–20 CrossRef MEDLINE
11. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mick E: The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 159–65 CrossRef MEDLINE
12.Fayyad J, Sampson NA, Hwang I, et al.: The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2016; DOI: 10.1007/s12402–016–0208–3 CrossRef
13.Doernberg E, Hollander E: Neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11. CNS Spectr 2016; 21: 295–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
14. Erskine HE, Norman RE, Ferrari AJ, et al.: Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2016; 55: 841–50 CrossRef MEDLINE
15.Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie (DGKJP): Leitlinien zu Diagnostik und Therapie von psychischen Störungen im Säuglings-, Kindes- und Jugendalter. 3rd ed. Köln: Deutscher Ärzteverlag 2007.
16.Bachmann M, Bachmann C, Rief W, Mattejat F: Wirksamkeit psychiatrischer und psychotherapeutischer Behandlungen bei psychischen Störungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Eine systematische Auswertung der Ergebnisse von Metaanalysen und Reviews. Teil II: ADHS und Störungen des Sozialverhaltens. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2008; 36: 321–33 CrossRef MEDLINE
17. Sonuga-Barke EJ, Brandeis D, Cortese S, et al.: Nonpharmacological interven-
tions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatry 2013; 170: 275–89 CrossRef MEDLINE
18. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline CG72. September 2008; last updated: 02/2016.
19. Moriyama TS, Polanczyk GV, Terzi FS, Faria KM, Rohde LA: Psychopharmacology and psychotherapy for the treatment of adults with ADHD—a systematic review of available meta-analyses. CNS Spectr 2013; 18: 296–306 CrossRef MEDLINE
20.Young Z, Moghaddam N, Tickle A: The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Atten Disord 2016; DOI: 10.1177/1087054716664413 CrossRef
21.Rosler M, Fischer R, Ammer R, Ose C, Retz W: A randomised, placebo-con-
trolled, 24-week, study of low-dose extended-release methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2009; 259: 120–9 CrossRef CrossRef MEDLINE
22.Biederman J, Mick E, Surman C, et al.: A randomized, 3-phase, 34-week, double-blind, long-term efficacy study of osmotic-release oral system-methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2010; 30: 549–53 CrossRef MEDLINE
23.Giacobini M, Medin E, Ahnemark E, Russo LJ, Carlqvist P: Prevalence, patient characteristics, and pharmacological treatment of children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with ADHD in Sweden. J Atten Disord 2014; DOI: 10.1177/1087054714554617 CrossRef
24.Burcu M, Zito JM, Metcalfe L, Underwood H, Safer DJ: Trends in stimulant medication use in commercially insured youths and adults, 2010–2014. JAMA Psychiatry 2016; 73: 992–3 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Karlstad O, Zoega H, Furu K, et al.: Use of drugs for ADHD among adults—a multinational study among 15.8 million adults in the nordic countries. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016; 72: 1507–14 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
26.de Zwaan M, Gruss B, Muller A, et al.: The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin
Neurosci 2012; 262: 79–86 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.Schlander M, Schwarz O, Trott GE, Viapiano M, Bonauer N: Who cares for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Insights from Nordbaden (Germany) on administrative prevalence and physician involvement in health care provision. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 16: 430–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
28.Grobe TG, Bitzer EM, Schwartz FW: BARMER GEK Arztreport 2013. Siegburg: Asgard 2013.
29.Gross S, Figge C, Matthies S, Philipsen A: ADHS im Erwachsenenalter: Diagnostik und Therapie. Der Nervenarzt 2015; 86: 1171–8 CrossRef MEDLINE
30.Philipsen A, Jans T, Graf E, et al.: Effects of group psychotherapy, individual counseling, methylphenidate, and placebo in the treatment of adult attention-
deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72: 1199–210 CrossRef MEDLINE
31.zentrales adhs-netz: Eckpunkte zur Versorgung von Kindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen mit Aufmerksamkeits-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) in Deutschland. Köln 2016. www.zentrales-adhs-netz.de/ueber-das-netz/taetigkeit/eckpunktepapier-adhs-2016.html (last accessed on 1 February 2017).
32.ADHS Deutschland e. V.: ADHS im Erwachsenenalter – ein Positionspapier der Selbsthilfe. München 2013. www.adhs-deutschland.de/PortalData/1/Resources/pdf/4_8_4_politik/ADHS_im_Erwachsenenalter_-_ein_Positionspapier.pdf (last accessed on 1 February 2017).
33.Blum RW, Garell D, Hodgman CH, et al.: Transition from child-centered to adult health-care systems for adolescents with chronic conditions. A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 1993; 14: 570–6 CrossRef
34.Stippel A, Schubert I, Philipsen A, Lehmkuhl G: ADHS. In: Oldhafer M (ed.): Transitionsmedizin. Stuttgart: Schattauer 2015: 149–57.
35.Singh SP, Paul M, Ford T, et al.: Process, outcome and experience of transition from child to adult mental healthcare: multiperspective study. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197: 305–12 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.Schubert I, Köster I, Lehmkuhl G: The changing prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate prescriptions: a study of data from a random sample of insurees of the AOK Health Insurance Company in the German state of Hesse, 2000–2007. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 615–21 VOLLTEXT
37.Mohr Jensen C, Steinhausen HC: Time trends in incidence rates of diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across 16 years in a nationwide Danish registry study. J Clin Psychiatry 2015; 76: e334–41 CrossRef MEDLINE
38.Steinhausen HC, Döpfner M, Schubert I: Zeitliche Trends bei den Häufigkeiten für Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörungen (ADHS) und Stimulanzienbehandlung. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2016; 44: 275–84 CrossRef MEDLINE
39.McManus S, Bebbington P, Jenkins R, Brugha T (eds.): Mental health and wellbeing in England: Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Leeds 2014. NHS Digital, 2016. http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB21748/apms-2014-full-rpt.pdf (last accessed on 1 February 2017).
40.Oehrlein EM, Burcu M, Safer DJ, Zito JM: National trends in ADHD diagnosis and treatment: comparison of youth and adult office-based visits. Psychiatr Serv 2016; 67: 964–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
e1.Bachmann C, Gerste B, Hoffmann F: Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Germany: Time trends in administrative prevalence and diagnostic stability. Autism 2016;
DOI 10.1177/1362361316673977.
e2.Aragonès E, Lluis Piñol J, Ramos-Quiroga JA, López-Cortacans G, Caballero A, Bosch R: [Prevalence in adults of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the medical records of primary care]. Rev Esp Salud Publica 2010; 84: 417–22.
e3.Simon V, Czobor P, Balint S, Meszaros A, Bitter I: Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 204–11 CrossRef
e4.Ginsberg Y, Beusterien KM, Amos K, Jousselin C, Asherson P: The unmet needs of all adults with ADHD are not the same: a focus on Europe. Expert Rev Neurother 2014; 14: 799–812 CrossRef
e5.Schwabe U, Paffrath D (eds.): Arzneiverordnungs-Report 2016: Aktuelle Daten, Kosten, Trends und Kommentare. Heidelberg: Springer 2016.
e6.Bachmann C, Wijlaars L, Kalverdijk LJ, et al.: Trends in ADHD medication use in children and adolescents in five western countries, 2005–2012. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2017; in print.
e7.Bachmann CJ, Lempp T, Glaeske G, Hoffmann F: Antipsychotic prescription in children and adolescents: an analysis of data from a German statutory health insurance company from 2005 to 2012. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2014; 111: 25–34 VOLLTEXT
e8.Bachmann C, Aagaard L, Burcu M, et al.: Trends and patterns of antidepressant use in children and adolescents from five western countries, 2005–2012. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016; 26: 411–9 CrossRef
e9.Geirs DP, Pottegard A, Halldorsson M, Zoega H: A nationwide
study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use among adults in Iceland 2003–2012. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2014; 115: 417–22 CrossRef
e10.Zetterqvist J, Asherson P, Halldner L, Långström N, Larsson H: Stimulant and non-stimulant attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug use: total population study of trends and discontinuation patterns 2006–2009. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013; 128: 70–7 CrossRef
e11.McCarthy S, Wilton L, Murray ML, Hodgkins P, Asherson P, Wong IC: The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 78.
e12. Hinshaw SP, Scheffler RM, Fulton BD, et al.: International variation in treatment procedures for ADHD: social context and recent trends. Psychiatr Serv 2011; 62: 459–64 CrossRef
e13.McCarthy S, Asherson P, Coghill D, et al.: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 273–7 CrossRef
e14.Longstreth WT Jr., Koepsell TD, Ton TG, Hendrickson AF, van Belle G: The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep 2007; 30: 13–26.
e15.Hoffmann F, Bachmann CJ: Unterschiede in den soziodemografischen Merkmalen, der Gesundheit und Inanspruchnahme bei Kindern und Jugendlichen nach ihrer Krankenkassenzugehörigkeit. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz 2014; 57: 455–63 CrossRef
e16.Fegert JM, Hauth I, Banaschewski T, Freyberger HJ: Übergang zwischen Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter: Herausforderungen für die Transitionspsychiatrie. Eckpunktepapier von DGKJP und DGPPN; Berlin 2016. www.dgppn.de/presse/pressemitteilungen/detailansicht/article//eckpunktepap-1.html (last accessed on 1 February 2017).
e17.Swift KD, Sayal K, Hollis C: ADHD and transitions to adult mental health services: a scoping review. Child Care Health Dev 2014; 40: 775–86 CrossRef