DÄ internationalArchiveReferences

Review article

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 729-35. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0729

Suárez, I; Fünger, S M; Kröger, S; Rademacher, J; Fätkenheuer, G; Rybniker, J

1.WHO: Global Tuberculosis Report. 2018. www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/ (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
2.Houben RM, Dodd PJ: The global burden of latent tuberculosis infection: a re-estimation using mathematical modelling. PLoS Med 2016; 13: e1002152 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
3.Brodhun B, Altmann D, Hauer B, et al.: Bericht zur Epidemiologie der Tuberkulose in Deutschland für 2015. Robert Koch-Institut 2016. www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/T/Tuberkulose/Download/TB2015.pdf (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
4.Perumal N, Hauer B: Ein historisches Signal für den Kampf gegen Tuberkulose – Deutschland muss das Momentum nutzen. Epid Bull 2019; 11/12: 95–6
5.Haas W: Bericht zur Epidemiologie der Tuberkulose in Deutschland für 2001. 2003. www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/T/Tuberkulose/Download/TB2001.pdf?__blob=publicationFile (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
6.Brodhun B, Altmann D, Hauer B: Bericht zur Epidemiologie der Tuberkulose in Deutschland für 2017. Epidemiologisches Bulletin 2018; 1–99. www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/T/Tuberkulose/Download/TB2017.pdf (last accessed on 1 August 2019)
7.Brodhun B, Altmann D, Hauer B, et al.: Bericht zur Epidemiologie der Tuberkulose in Deutschland für 2016. Epidemiologisches Bulletin 2017; 1–102. www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/T/Tuberkulose/Download/TB2016.pdf (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
8.Churchyard G, Kim P, Shah NS, et al.: What we know about tuberculosis transmission: an overview. J Infect Dis 2017; 216: 629–35 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
9.Stewart GR, Robertson BD, Young DB: Tuberculosis: a problem with persistence. Nat Rev Microbiol 2003; 1: 97–105 CrossRef MEDLINE
10.WHO: Guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis infection. 2015. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136471/9789241548908_eng.pdf;jsessionid=1513688E04508E6C C7FAE60613511D41?sequence=1 (last accessed on 1 September 2019)
11.WHO: Latent TB Infection: Updated and consolidated guidelines for programmatic management. 2018. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/260233/9789241550239-eng.pdf (last accessed September 1 2019)
12.Murdaca G, Spano F, Contatore M, et al.: Infection risk associated with anti-TNF-alpha agents: a review. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2015; 14: 571–82 CrossRef MEDLINE
13.Furin J, Cox H, Pai M: Tuberculosis. Lancet 2019; 393: 1642–56 CrossRef
14.Zumla A, Raviglione M, Hafner R, von Reyn CF: Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 745–55 CrossRef MEDLINE
15.Gonzalez-Garcia A, Fortun J, Elorza Navas E, et al.: The changing epidemiology of tuberculosis in a Spanish tertiary hospital (1995–2013). Medicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96: e7219 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
16.Suarez I, Maria Funger S, Jung N, et al.: Severe disseminated tuberculosis in HIV-negative refugees. Lancet Infect Dis 2019; pii: 1473–3099 (19) 30162–8. [Epub ahead of print] CrossRef
17.Bradby H, Humphris R, Newall D, Phillimore J: Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for refugees and asylum seekers in the european region. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2015. WHO Health Evidence Network Synthesis Reports. www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/289246/WHO-HEN-Report-A5–2-Refugees_FINAL.pdf (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
18.ECDC: Migrant Health: Background note to the ‘ECDC Report on Migration and Infectious Diseases in the EU’. 2009. https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/0907_TER_Migrant_health_Background_note.pdf (last accessed on September 1 2019)
19.Pfyffer G: Mycobacterium: General characteristics, laboratory detection, and staining procedures. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Landry, ML, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, eds.: Manual of clinical microbiology, 9th edition, Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology Press 2007; 543–72.
20.Schaberg T, Bauer T, Brinkmann F, et al.: [Tuberculosis guideline for adults – guideline for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis including LTBI testing and treatment of the German Central Committee (DZK) and the German Respiratory Society (DGP)]. Pneumologie 2017; 71: 325–97.
21.WHO: Treatment of tuberculosis: guidelines—4th edition. World Health Organization Press 2010. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44165/9789241547833_eng.pdf (last accessed on 1 September 2019).
22.WHO: Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children. www.who.int/tb/publications/xpert_policyupdate/en/2013 (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
23.Im JG, Itoh H, Shim YS, et al.: Pulmonary tuberculosis: CT findings— early active disease and sequential change with antituberculous therapy. Radiology 1993; 186: 653–60 CrossRef MEDLINE
24.Lee KS, Im JG: CT in adults with tuberculosis of the chest: characteristic findings and role in management. Am J Roentgenol 1995; 164: 1361–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
25.Yeh JJ, Chen SC, Teng WB, et al.: Identifying the most infectious lesions in pulmonary tuberculosis by high-resolution multi-detector computed tomography. Eur Radiol 2010; 20: 2135–45 CrossRef MEDLINE
26.Geng E, Kreiswirth B, Burzynski J, Schluger NW: Clinical and radiographic correlates of primary and reactivation tuberculosis: a molecular epidemiology study. JAMA 2005; 293: 2740–5 CrossRef MEDLINE
27.World Health Organization: WHO guidelines approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. Automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and Rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children: Policy Update. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK258608/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK258608.pdf (last accessed on 1 September 2019).
28.Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N, et al.: Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for disease control and prevention/infectious diseases. Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63: e147–e95 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
29.WHO: WHO treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis (2016 update). www.who.int/tb/areas-of-work/drug-resistant-tb/treatment/resources/en/2016 . (last accessed on 1 August 2019).
30.Yee D, Valiquette C, Pelletier M, Parisien I, Rocher I, Menzies D: Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 1472–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
31.Ormerod LP, Horsfield N: Frequency and type of reactions to antituberculosis drugs: observations in routine treatment. Tuber Lung Dis 1996; 77: 37–42 CrossRef
32.Gulbay BE, Gurkan OU, Yildiz OA, et al.: Side effects due to primary antituberculosis drugs during the initial phase of therapy in 1149 hospitalized patients for tuberculosis. Respir Med 2006; 100: 1834–42 CrossRef MEDLINE
33.Sharma SK, Singla R, Sarda P, et al.: Safety of 3 different reintroduction regimens of antituberculosis drugs after development of antituberculosis treatment-induced hepatotoxicity. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50: 833–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
34.Kass JS, Shandera WX: Nervous system effects of antituberculosis therapy. CNS drugs 2010; 24: 655–67 CrossRef MEDLINE
35.Cantini F, Nannini C, Niccoli L, et al.: Guidance for the management of patients with latent tuberculosis infection requiring biologic therapy in rheumatology and dermatology clinical practice. Autoimmun Rev 2015; 14: 503–9 CrossRef MEDLINE
36.Mikulska M, Lanini S, Gudiol C, et al.: ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH). Consensus document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an infectious diseases perspective (Agents targeting lymphoid cells surface antigens [I]: CD19, CD20 and CD52). Clin Microbiol Infect 2018; 24 (Suppl 2): 71–82 CrossRef MEDLINE
37.Winthrop KL, Mariette X, Silva JT, et al.: ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH). Consensus document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an infectious diseases perspective (Soluble immune effector molecules [II]: agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors). Clin Microbiol Infect 2018; 24 (Suppl 2): 21–40 CrossRef MEDLINE
38.Epstein DJ, Dunn J, Deresinski S: Infectious complications of multiple sclerosis therapies: implications for screening, prophylaxis, and management. Open Forum Infect Dis 2018; 5: 174 CrossRef MEDLINE
39.van Cutsem G, Isaakidis P, Farley J, Nardell E, Volchenkov G, Cox H: Infection control for drug-resistant tuberculosis: early diagnosis and treatment is the key. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 62 (Suppl 3): 238–43 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e1.Ellis PK, Martin WJ, Dodd PJ: CD4 count and tuberculosis risk in HIV-positive adults not on ART: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Peer J 2017; 5: e4165 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e2.Yorke E, Atiase Y, Akpalu J, Sarfo-Kantanka O, Boima V, Dey ID: The bidirectional relationship between tuberculosis and diabetes. Tuberc Res Treat 2017; 2017: 1702578 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e3.Rogerson TE, Chen S, Kok J, et al.: Tests for latent tuberculosis in people with ESRD: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis 2013; 61: 33–43 CrossRef MEDLINE
e4.Odone A, Tillmann T, Sandgren A, et al.: Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area. Eur J Public Health 2015; 25: 506–12 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e5.Getahun H, Gunneberg C, Granich R, Nunn P: HIV infection-associated tuberculosis: the epidemiology and the response. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50 (Suppl 3): 201–7 CrossRef MEDLINE
e6.UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. www.unaids.org/en (last accessed on 29 August 2019).
e7.Karo B, Haas W, Kollan C, et al.: Tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in the German ClinSurv HIV Cohort: long-term incidence and risk factors. BMC Infect Dis 2014; 14: 148 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e8.Aabye MG, Ravn P, PrayGod G, et al.: The impact of HIV infection and CD4 cell count on the performance of an interferon gamma release assay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS One 2009; 4: e4220 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e9.Telisinghe L, Amofa-Sekyi M, Maluzi K, et al.: The sensitivity of the QuantiFERON((R))-TB Gold Plus assay in Zambian adults with active tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017; 21: 690–6 CrossRef MEDLINE PubMed Central
e10.University of Licerpool: Druginteractions. www.hiv-druginteractions.org. (last accessed on 29 August 2019).
e11.Seelbach-Göbel: 240. Stellungnahme des DZK in Zusammenarbeit mit FZB, DGI, DGPI, GPP, DGGG, DRG und DGMP zum Tuberkulosescreening bei Schwangeren im Kontext von § 36 (4) Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG). 2017 CrossRef
e12.Feiterna-Sperling C, Brinkmann F, Adamczick C, et al.: [Consensus-based guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in children and adolescents – A guideline on behalf of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI)]. Pneumologie 2017; 71: 629–80 CrossRef MEDLINE